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lectures on aerodynamics of helicopters

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You are on page 1of 231

Airfoil Description

in a direction normal to the camber line. Camber Line

Chord Line

Pressure Forces acting on the Airfoil

Low Pressure

High velocity

High Pressure

Low velocity

High velocity Low velocity

Bernoulli’s equation says where pressure is high, velocity will be low and vice versa.

Characteristics of Cl vs. a

Stall

Cl

Slope= 2p if a is in radians.

a = a0

Angle of

zero lift

or radians

The angle of zero lift depends on

the camber of the airfoil

Cambered airfoil

Cl

a = a0 Symmetric Airfoil

Angle of

zero lift

or radians

Skin Friction

Particles away

from the

airfoil move

unhindered.

airfoil stick to the

surface, and try to

slow down the

nearby particles.

This region of low

speed flow is called

the boundary layer.

Lift on Aerofoil

• Pressure Differential

Between Upper & Lower Airfoil Surfaces Creates Lift

• Lift Equation L 2 V 2 SC L

1

Drag on Aerofoil

• Types of Drag

– Induced: Caused by the Production of Lift

– Parasite: All Drag Not Caused by Lift

• Profile: Parasitic Drag of Rotor Blades Passing

Through the Air

D 2 V 2 SC D

1

• Drag Equation

– Low Speed: Induced Drag

– High Speed: Parasite/Profile Drag

Flow over Aerofoil

Angle Between Chord Line &

Rotational Relative Wind (Tip Path

Angle Between Chord Plane)

Line & Rotational Relative

Wind (Tip Path Plane) Vector Sum of

Vector Sum of Rotational Relative

Airfoil Lift & Drag Acts Perpendicular Wind & Induced Flow

to Resultant

Relative Wind

Vertical

Component

Opposes Direction of Blade of Airflow

Acts Parallel Rotation in Tip Path Plane Drawn

& Opposite Through the

to Resultant Rotor System

Relative

Wind

Induced Flow through Rotor

How does a real helicopter fly

Helicopter flies by accelerating column

of air downwards through the rotor.

pressure difference Δp

which accelerates flow

through it. The velocity

far upstream is 0, at

the rotor v’ and far

downstream v".

Momentum Theory

• Momentum theory concerns itself with the global

balance of mass, momentum, and energy.

• It does not concern itself with details of the flow

around the blades.

• It gives a good representation of what is happening

far away from the rotor.

• This theory makes a number of simplifying

assumptions. Rotor is modeled as an actuator disk

which adds momentum and energy to the flow.

• Flow is incompressible.

• Flow is steady, inviscid, irrotational.

• Flow is one-dimensional, and uniform through the

rotor disk, and in the far wake.

• There is no swirl in the wake.

12

Control Volume is a Cylinder

Station1 V Climb Velocity (velocity up-strem)

Control Volume

Consider a

control

volume of 2

V+v2

flow 3 V+v3

enclosing Disk area A Velocity across

the disk

rotor disk

Velocity down

4 stream

V+v4

Total area S

13

Flows through Control Volume

Inflow through t he side m

1

Outflow through t he bottom

VS - A 4 (V v4 ) A4

14

Conservation of Mass through the Rotor

Disk

Flow through the rotor disk =

m AV v 2 AV v3

A4 V v 4

Thus v2=v3=vi

There is no velocity jump across the rotor disk

The quantity vi is called

induced velocity at the rotor

disk

Global Conservation of Momentum

Momentum inflow through t op V 2 S

Momentum inflow through t he side m 1V

A 4 v 4V

Momentum outflow through bottom

S - A 4 V 2 V v 4 2 A4

Pressure is atmospheri c on all

the far field boundaries .

Thrust , T Momentum rate out -

Momentum Rate in

T A 4 (V v 4 ) v 4 m v 4

Mass flow rate through the rotor disk times

Excess velocity between stations 1 and 4

Conservation of Momentum at the Rotor Disk

Rotor disk, there is no velocity jump.

outflow rate

Conservation of Energy

Consider a particle that traverses from station 1 to station 4

Aapply Bernoulli equation between stations 1 and 2, and

1 between stations 3 and 4.

Recall assumptions that the flow is steady, irrotational,

inviscid.

p2 V vi p V 2

1 2 1

2 2

2 V+vi

p3 V vi p V v4

1 2 1 2

3 2 2

v4

p3 p2 V v4

2

v4

4 V+v4 T A p3 p2 AV v4

2

Thrust equals mass flow rate through the rotor disk times excess

velocity between stations 1 and 4

T AV vi v 4 Thus, vi = v4/2

Induced Velocities

V The excess velocity in the

Far wake is twice the induced

Velocity at the rotor disk.

V+vi

To accommodate this excess

Velocity, the stream tube

has to contract.

V+2vi

© L. Sankar Helicopter

19

Aerodynamics

Induced Velocity at the Rotor Disk

Induced velocity at the rotor disk can be

computed in terms of the rotor thrust

(Excess velocity between 1 and 4).

T = 2 A (V+vi)vi

There are two solutions.

The – sign Corresponds to

a wind turbine, where

2 energy Is removed from the

V V T flow. v is negative.

v-

2 2 2 A The + sign corresponds to a

rotor or Propeller where

energy is added to the flow.

In this case, v is positive.

20

Induced Velocity at Rotor Disk in Hover

2

V V T

v-

2 2 2 A

In Hover, climb velocity V 0

T

v

2 A

Non-dimensional v 1 T CT

form of induced i

velocity R R 2 A 2

Ideal Power Consumed by the Rotor

m V 2v m V 2

1 2 1

2 2

2m vV v T V v

V

V

2

T

T

2 2 2 A

T

In hover, ideal power T

2 A

Observations from Momentum Theory

the far wake is twice the induced velocity at the rotor

disk.

• Momentum theory gives an expression for induced

velocity at the rotor disk.

• It also gives an expression for ideal power consumed

by a rotor of specified dimensions.

• Actual power will be higher, because momentum

theory neglected many sources of losses- viscous

effects, compressibility (shocks), tip losses, swirl,

non-uniform flows, etc.

Implications of Temperature and rotor disk area

– Induced velocity is higher.

– Power consumption is higher

• What happens if the rotor disk area A is smaller?

– Induced velocity and power are higher.

• There are practical limits to consider large A .

Figure of Merit

• Figure of merit is defined as the ratio of ideal power

for a rotor in hover obtained from momentum theory

and the actual power consumed by the rotor.

• For most rotors, it is between 0.7 and 0.8.

FM

Actual Power in Hover

CT

CT

Tv 2

P CP

Observations on Figure of Merit

of time in hover, designers attempt to optimize the

rotor for hover (FM~0.8).

• A rotor with a lower figure of merit (FM~0.6) is not

necessarily a bad rotor as the rotor parameters are

optimized for other conditions (e.g. high speed

forward flight).

Example #1 (Continued)

• A tilt-rotor aircraft Disk Area A p 19

2

of 60,500 lb. Density 0.00238 slugs/cubi c feet

(27500 kg).

There are two rotors. T 30250 lbf

• The rotor diameter

is 38 feet (11.58 T

Induced velocity, v

m). 2 A

• Assume FM=0.75, v 74.86 ft/sec

Transmission Downwash in the far wake 150 ft/sec !

losses=5% Ideal Power Tv 30250 x 74.86 lb ft/sec

• Compute power Ideal Power 4117 HP

needed to hover at Actual Power ideal Power/FM 4117/0.75

sea level on a hot Actual power 5490 HP

day.

For the two rotors, total actual power 10980 HP

There is 5% transmiss ion loss

Power supplied by the engine to the shaft 10980 *1.05 11528 HP

28

Effects of Tip Losses

A portion of the rotor near the tip

does not produce much lift

Due to leakage of air from

The bottom of the disk to the top.

One can crudely account for it by

using a smaller, modified radius

BR, where B is given by

2CT b = Number

B 1 of blades.

b

1 1 CT

Power Consumption in Hover

Including Tip Losses..

CP CT

FM B 2

Non-dimensionalization of Rotor Forces

Thrust, Torque and Torque are usually expressed in

non-dimensional form .

Ω Rotor speed(rad/sec)

A Rotor disk area

N Number of blades

Torque Coefficient ρ Air density

c Rotor chord

P

Power Coefficient C Q = CQ

AR 3

Non Dimensional Rotor Parameters

Rotor inflow

Rotor tip velocity

Solidity factor

Disk Loading

The ratio T/A is called disk loading.

induced velocity, and the higher the power.

Disk Loading

Helicopters 5 to 10 lb/m2

Tilt Rotors 20 to 40 lb/m2 Less efficient in hover

Vtol aircraft 500 lb/m2 Small fans

Power Loading

The ratio of thrust to power T/P

is called the Power Loading.

Power Loading

Helicopter 6 to 10 lb/HP High

Tilt Rotors 2 to 6 lb/HP Low

VTOL 2 lb/HP Lowest

Momentum theory advantages and dis-

advantages

• Momentum theory gives • It does not take into

rapid, back-of-the- account

envelope estimates of • Number of blades

Power. • Airfoil characteristics

• This approach is (lift, drag, angle of

sufficient to size a rotor zero lift)

(i.e. select the disk area) • Blade planform (taper,

for a given power plant sweep, root cut-out)

(engine), and a given

gross weight. • Blade twist

distribution

• This approach is not

adequate for designing • Compressibility

the rotor. effects

Typical Blade Strip

Tip

Cut Out

Tip

Power b dP

Cut Out

Flow over Airfoil Section of the strip

V v Line of Zero Lift

arctan

r

aeffective = q

q

V+v

r

and drag coefficients for the airfoil section at that strip

can be estimated.

Aerofoil Sectional Forces

Sectional lift and drag forces acting on the elemental

strip can be written as

1

L U T2 U P2 cCl dr

2 UT= wr

1 UP= V+v

D U T2 U P2 cCd dr

2

These forces will act normal to and along

the resultant velocity vector.

Resolution of Forces on aerofoil Section

The elemental forces are

T L resolved normal and inplane

(plane of rotation) directions

Fx

V+v

r D

U T2 U P2 cCl cos Cd sin dr

1

2

Fx D cos L sin

U T2 U P2 cCd cos Cl sin dr

1

2

dP U T Fx rFX

Blade Element Theory

Blade Element Theory

• Blade Element Theory rectifies

many of the drawbacks of the

momentum theory. First

proposed by Drzwiecki in 1892.

• It is a “strip” theory. The blade is

divided into a number of strips, of

width r.

• The lift generated by that strip,

and the power consumed by that

strip, are computed using 2-D

airfoil aerodynamics.

• The contributions from all the

strips from all the blades are

summed up to get total thrust,

and total power.

Unedited_slides

Closed form Solutions

derived for cases with the chord c is constant and

simple linear twist.

The inflow velocity v and climb velocity V are assumed

small wrt to rotor tip velocity. Thus, φ << 1 which leads

to an approximate cos(φ ) by unity, and approximate

sin(φ) by φ .

The lift coefficient is a linear function of the effective angle

of attack, that is, Cl=a(θ - φ) where a is the lift curve

slope.

Cd is small. So, Cd sin(φ) may be neglected.

The in-plane velocity ωr is much larger than the normal

component V+v over most of the rotor.

Thrust and Power

from Blade Element theory

r R

1 V v 2

Rotor Thrust cba q

2

r dr

2 r 0

r r

r R

1 V v V v 3

Rotor Power cba q

3

Cd r dr

2 r 0

r r r r

Thrust of Rotor with Linearly Twisted Blade

Assume that the blade pitch angle varies as q E Fr

b 1 3 V v 3

Thrust T ca E FR

2

R

2 3 4 2 R

q .75 R

ca R R

b

/ 2

2

2 3

abc q .75 a q .75 R

CT

2pR 3 / 2 2 3 / 2

where

solidity BladeArea/ DiskArea bc / pR

a Lift Curve slope (~ 2p ) , b number of blades

V v

Inflow Ratio

R

Thrust dependence on Pitch

Notice that the thrust coefficient is linearly proportional to the

pitch angle q at the 75% Radius.

in industry.

The expression for power can be integrated in a similar

manner, if the drag coefficient Cd is assumed to be a

constant, equal to Cd0.

C d 0

C P CT

8

Induced Power Profile Power

Ideally Twisted Rotor

q tip R

q

r

a

CT q tip

4

Cd 0

C P CT Same as linearly

8 Twisted rotor!

Figure of Merit from Blade Element Theory

CT

FM ;

CT Cd 0 / 8

where Inflow Ratio (V v)/ R;

Solidity Blade Area/Disk Area

leads to higher Power consumption, and lower figure of

merit.

Figure of merit can be improved with the use of low drag

airfoils.

Average Lift Coefficient

Assume that every Average Lift Coefficien t Cl

section of the entire R

2 3

cr Cl dr

1 bc C R

rotor is operating at T b

2 l

an optimum lift 0

2 6

coefficient.

T bc Cl Cl

Assume the rotor is CT

untapered. pR R pR 6

2 2

6

CT

Cl 6

Generally rotor will stall if average lift coefficient

exceeds 1.2 . Thus, in practice, CT/σ is limited to 0.2 .

Optimum Lift Coefficient in Hover

CT CT

In Hover FM ; ; C T Cl / 6

Cd 0 2

CT

8

3/ 2

C T

2 1

FM

CT3 / 2 Cd 0 1 (3 3Cd 0 / C l )

3/ 2

2 8

Drawbacks of Blade Element Theory

• It does not handle tip losses.

– This can be accounted by considering tip loss factor B.

Numerically integrate thrust from the cutout to BR

Integrate torque from cut-out all the way to the tip.

• It assumes that the induced velocity v is uniform.

• It does not account for swirl losses.

• The Predicted power is sometimes empirically

corrected for these losses.

Cd 0

C P CT where 1.15

8

Flap, Lag, and Feathering

There are three potential applications for the Flex Pivot in an

articulated rotor. Currently, bearings are being utilized in the

following locations, as denoted by the circles in Figure 1.

Blade Free Body Diagram

z

AF

Omega

CF

K IF

Beta

n, y

e

Force Equation

The forces acting on the blades of a fully articulated

hub include:

• Inertia Force, IF

• Centrifugal Force, CF

• Aerodynamic Force, AF

• Spring Moment, SF

After analyzing these various forces, it was determined

that the bulk of the forces on the blade comes from

the centrifugal force, expressed by the following

force equation:

• F=ma, where a=Rω2

In a helicopter, you can move in any direction or you can rotate 360 degrees

The swash plate assembly consists of two plates -- the fixed and the rotating swash plates

shown above in blue and red, respectively.

•The rotating swash plate rotates with the drive shaft (green) and the rotor's blades (grey)

because of the links (purple) that connect the rotating plate to the drive shaft.

•The pitch control rods (orange) allow the rotating swash plate to change the pitch of the

rotor blades.

•The angle of the fixed swash plate is changed by the control rods (yellow) attached to the

fixed swash plate.

•The fixed plate's control rods are affected by the pilot's input to the cyclic and collective

controls.

•The fixed and rotating swash plates are connected with a set of bearings between the two

plates. These bearings allow the rotating swash plate to spin on top of the fixed swash plate.

Paul Cornu (1907)

First man to fly in helicopter mode..

© L. Sankar Helicopter

105

Aerodynamics

De La Cierva

invented Autogyros (1923)

© L. Sankar Helicopter

106

Aerodynamics

Cierva introduced hinges at the root

that allowed blades to freely flap

Hinges

not unwanted moments.

In later models, lead-lag hinges were also used to

Alleviate root stresses from Coriolis forces

© L. Sankar Helicopter

107

Aerodynamics

Igor Sikorsky

Started work in 1907, Patent in 1935

the rotor on the vehicle.

© L. Sankar Helicopter

108

Aerodynamics

Sikorsky’s R-4

© L. Sankar Helicopter

109

Aerodynamics

Ways of countering the

Reactive Torque

© L. Sankar Helicopter

110

Aerodynamics

Single Rotor Helicopter

© L. Sankar Helicopter

111

Aerodynamics

Tandem Rotors (Chinook)

© L. Sankar Helicopter

112

Aerodynamics

Coaxial rotors

Kamov KA-52

© L. Sankar Helicopter

113

Aerodynamics

NOTAR Helicopter

© L. Sankar Helicopter

114

Aerodynamics

NOTAR Concept

© L. Sankar Helicopter

115

Aerodynamics

Tilt Rotor Vehicles

© L. Sankar Helicopter

116

Aerodynamics

Helicopters tend to grow in size..

AH-64A AH-64D

Primary Mission Gross 15,075 lb (6838 kg) 16,027 lb (7270 kg) Lot

Weight 11,800 pounds Empty 1 Weight

© L. Sankar Helicopter

117

Aerodynamics

Power Plant Limitations

• Helicopters use turbo shaft engines.

• Power available is the principal factor.

• An adequate power plant is important for

carrying out the missions.

• We will look at ways of estimating power

requirements for a variety of operating

conditions.

© L. Sankar Helicopter

118

Aerodynamics

High Speed

Forward Flight Limitations

• As the forward speed increases, advancing side

experiences shock effects, retreating side stalls. This

limits thrust available.

• Vibrations go up, because of the increased dynamic

pressure, and increased harmonic content.

• Shock Noise goes up.

• Fuselage drag increases, and parasite power

consumption goes up as V3.

• We need to understand and accurately predict the

air loads in high speed forward flight.

© L. Sankar Helicopter

119

Aerodynamics

Hover Performance

Prediction Methods

© L. Sankar Helicopter

120

Aerodynamics

Drawbacks of Momentum Theory

© L. Sankar Helicopter

121

Aerodynamics

Blade Element Theory

• Blade Element Theory rectifies many of these

drawbacks. First proposed by Drzwiecki in 1892.

• It is a “strip” theory. The blade is divided into a

number of strips, of width r.

• The lift generated by that strip, and the power

consumed by that strip, are computed using 2-D

airfoil aerodynamics.

• The contributions from all the strips from all the

blades are summed up to get total thrust, and total

power.

© L. Sankar Helicopter

122

Aerodynamics

Approximate Expressions

• The integration (or summation of forces) can

only be done numerically.

• A spreadsheet may be designed. A sample

spreadsheet is being provided as part of the

course notes.

• In some simple cases, analytical expressions

may be obtained.

© L. Sankar Helicopter

123

Aerodynamics

Example

(From Leishman)

• Gross Weight = 16,000lb

• Main rotor radius = 27 ft

• Tail rotor radius 5.5 ft

• Chord=1.7 ft (main), Tail rotor chord=0.8 ft

• No. of blades =4 (Main rotor), 4 (tail rotor)

• Tip speed= 725 ft/s (main), 685 ft/s (tail)

• K=1.15, Cd0=0.008

• Available HP =3000Transmission losses=10%

• Estimate hover ceiling (as density altitude)

© L. Sankar Helicopter

124

Aerodynamics

Step I

• Multiply 3000 HP by 550 ft.lb/sec.

• Divide this by 1.10 to account for available power to

the two rotors (10% transmission loss).

• We will use non-dimensional form of power into

dimensional forms, as shown below:

• P= Tv+ (R)3A [Cd0/8]

• Find an empirical fit for variation of with altitude:

4.2553

0.00198h

1

sealevel 288.16

© L. Sankar Helicopter

125

Aerodynamics

Step 2

• Assume an altitude, h. Compute density, .

• Do the following for main rotor:

– Find main rotor area A

– Find v as [T/(2A)]1/2 Note T= Vehicle weight in lbf.

– Insert supplied values of , Cd0, W to find main rotor P.

– Divide this power by angular velocity W to get main rotor torque.

– Divide this by the distance between the two rotor shafts to get tail

rotor thrust.

• Now that the tail rotor thrust is known, find tail rotor power

in the same way as the main rotor.

• Add main rotor and tail rotor powers. Compare with

available power from step 1.

• Increase altitude, until required power = available power.

• Answer = 10,500 ft

© L. Sankar Helicopter

126

Aerodynamics

Hover Performance

Prediction Methods

III. Combined Blade Element-Momentum

(BEM) Theory

© L. Sankar Helicopter

127

Aerodynamics

Background

• Blade Element Theory has a number of

assumptions.

• The biggest (and worst) assumption is that

the inflow is uniform.

• In reality, the inflow is non-uniform.

• It may be shown from variational calculus that

uniform inflow yields the lowest induced

power consumption.

© L. Sankar Helicopter

128

Aerodynamics

Consider an Annulus of the rotor Disk

Area = 2prdr

dr

Mass flow rate =2prV+vdr

the induced velocity at the

annulus)

= 4pr(V+v)vdr

© L. Sankar Helicopter

129

Aerodynamics

Blade Elements Captured by the Annulus

dr blade elements:

dT b r c Cl dr

1 2

2

r

2 V v

abc r q

1

dr

2 r

© L. Sankar Helicopter

130

Aerodynamics

Equate the Thrust for the Elements

from the

Momentum and Blade Element

Approaches

a a r

c q 0

2

8 8 R

a r a c

2

a c

where, q

V 16 2 8 R 16 2

c

R

V v

Total Inflow Velocity from Combined

R Blade Element-Momentum Theory

© L. Sankar Helicopter

131

Aerodynamics

Numerical Implementation of Combined

BEM Theory

• The numerical implementation is identical to

classical blade element theory.

• The only difference is the inflow is no longer

uniform. It is computed using the formula

given earlier, reproduced below:

a c a r a c

2

q

16 2 8 R 16 2

Note that inflow is uniform if q= CR/r . This twist is therefore

called the ideal twist. © L. Sankar Helicopter

132

Aerodynamics

Effect of Inflow on Power in Hover

R R

Pinduced vdT 4 prv 3 dr

0 0

R R

T dT 4 prv 2 dr constraint

0 0

Therefore, we minimize P - T where is a Lagrangean multiplier . P - T 0

R

3 2

4 prv 4prv dr 0 Variation of a functional

0

R

p 2 v vdr 0

2

4 r 3 v

0

The only way t he integral will vanish for all possible variation s v is if 3v 2 2 v 0

Since is a contant (Lagrangea n multiplier ), it follows that v must be a constant.

Uniform inflow produces least induced power, for a specified level of thrust!

© L. Sankar Helicopter

133

Aerodynamics

Ideal Rotor vs. Optimum Rotor

• Ideal rotor has a non-linear twist: q= CR/r

• This rotor will, according to the BEM theory, have a uniform

inflow, and the lowest induced power possible.

• The rotor blade will have very high local pitch angles q near

the root, which may cause the rotor to stall.

• Ideally Twisted rotor is also hard to manufacture.

• For these reasons, helicopter designers strive for optimum

rotors that minimize total power, and maximize figure of

merit.

• This is done by a combination of twist, and taper, and the use

of low drag airfoil sections.

© L. Sankar Helicopter

134

Aerodynamics

Optimum Rotor

• We try to minimize total power (Induced power + Profile

Power) for a given T.

• In other words, an optimum rotor has the maximum figure

of merit.

• From earlier work (see slide 72), figure of merit is

3

maximized if Cl 2 is maximized.

Cd

attack where this value of Cl and Cd are produced.

• We will call this Cl the optimum lift coefficient Cl,optimum .

© L. Sankar Helicopter

135

Aerodynamics

Optimum rotor (continued..)

3

Cl 2

All radial stations will operate at an optimum a at which is maximum.

Cd

Once angle of attack a is selected, we find q from

v v CT

a q - arctan and

r R 2

This determines how the blade must be twisted.

© L. Sankar Helicopter

136

Aerodynamics

Variation of Chord for the Optimum Rotor

dT b r c Cl dr

1 2

2

dT = (Mass flow rate) * (twice the induced velocity at the annulus)

= 4pr(v)vdr

It follows that

bc 8v 2 1 Const

r 2

pR RCl r r

Local solidity

© L. Sankar Helicopter

137

Aerodynamics

Planform of Optimum Rotor

Root

Cut out Chord is proportional to 1/r

Tip

r=R r

Such planforms and twist distributions are hard to manufacture, and are optimum

only at one thrust setting.

in chord (constant taper ratio) to achieve optimum performance.

© L. Sankar Helicopter

138

Aerodynamics

Accounting for Tip Losses

• We have already accounted for two sources of

performance loss-non-uniform inflow, and blade

viscous drag.

• We can account for compressibility wave drag effects

and associated losses, during the table look-up of

drag coefficient.

• Two more sources of loss in performance are tip

losses, and swirl.

• An elegant theory is available for tip losses from

Prandtl.

© L. Sankar Helicopter

139

Aerodynamics

Prandtl’s Tip Loss Model

Prandtl suggests that we multiply the sectional inflow by

a function F, which goes to zero at the tip, and unity in the interior.

F

p

2

arcCos e f

where, F approaches unity, there is no tip loss.

b 1 r

f

2

© L. Sankar Helicopter

140

Aerodynamics

Incorporation of Tip Loss Model in BEM

dr

dT =

r = 4prF(V+v)vdr

© L. Sankar Helicopter

141

Aerodynamics

Resulting Inflow (Hover)

a a r a

2

q

16 F 8F R 16 F

a 32 F r

1 q 1

16 F a R

© L. Sankar Helicopter

142

Aerodynamics

Hover Performance

Prediction Methods

IV. Vortex Theory

© L. Sankar Helicopter

143

Aerodynamics

BACKGROUND

• Extension of Prandtl’s Lifting Line Theory

• Uses a combination of

– Kutta-Joukowski Theorem

– Biot-Savart Law

– Empirical Prescribed Wake or Free Wake Representation of Tip

Vortices and Inner Wake

• Robin Gray proposed the prescribed wake model in 1952.

• Landgrebe generalzied Gray’s model with extensive

experimental data.

• Vortex theory was the extensively used in the 1970s and

1980s for rotor performance calculations, and is slowly giving

way to CFD methods.

© L. Sankar Helicopter

144

Aerodynamics

Background (Continued)

• Vortex theory addresses some of the drawbacks of

combined blade element-momentum theory

methods, at high thrust settings (high CT/).

• At these settings, the inflow velocity is affected by

the contraction of the wake.

• Near the tip, there can be an upward directed inflow

(rather than downward directed) due to this

contraction, which increases the tip loading, and

alters the tip power consumption.

© L. Sankar Helicopter

145

Aerodynamics

Kutta-Joukowsky Theorem

G : Bound Circulation surrounding

T

the airfoil section.

r Fx As vorticity in the boundary Layer

V+v

over the airfoil

T (r) G

Fx= (V+v) G

© L. Sankar Helicopter

146

Aerodynamics

Representation of

Bound and Trailing Vorticies

vortices develop. Some have clockwise rotation,

others have counterclockwise

© L. Sankar rotation.

Helicopter

147

Aerodynamics

Robin Gray’s Conceptual Model

Contraction that can

be fitted with

Inner wake descends at a near an exponential curve

constant velocity. It descends fit.

faster near the tip than at the root.

© L. Sankar Helicopter

148

Aerodynamics

Landgrebe’s Curve Fit for the

Tip Vortex Contraction

Rv

R

Rv 0.707 R

2

v 2v

© L. Sankar Helicopter

149

Aerodynamics

Radial Contraction

R vortex

A (1 A)e v

R

A 0.78

0.145 27CT

v Vortex Age

Azimuthal Position of the vortex

Filament measured from the blade

© L. Sankar Helicopter

150

Aerodynamics

Vertical Descent Rate

Zv

v

© L. Sankar Helicopter

151

Aerodynamics

Landgrebe’s Curve Fit for

Tip Vortex Descent Rate

zV 2p

k1 V 0 V

R b

zV 2p 2p 2p

k1 k 2 V V

R b b b

CT

k1 0.25 0.001q twist,degrees

k 2 CT 0.01 CT q twist,degrees

This quantity is usually negative.

© L. Sankar Helicopter

152

Aerodynamics

Circulation Coupled Wake Model

• Landgrebe’s earlier curve fits (1972) were

based on the thrust coefficient, blade twist

(change in the pitch angle between tip and

root, usually negative).

• He subsequently found (1977) that better

curve fits are obtained if the tip vortex

trajectory is fitted on the basis of peak bound

circulation, rather than CT/.

© L. Sankar Helicopter

153

Aerodynamics

Tip Vortex Representation in

Computational Analyses

• This continuous structure is broken into piecewise

straight line segments, each representing 15 degrees

to 30 degrees of vortex age.

• The tip vortex strength is assumed to be the

maximum bound circulation. Some calculations

assume it to be 80% of the peak circulation.

• The vortex is assumed to have a small core of an

empirically prescribed radius, to keep induced

velocities finite.

© L. Sankar Helicopter

154

Aerodynamics

Tip Vortex Representation

Control Points on the Lifting Line where induced flow is calculated

Lifting Line

15

degrees

End points of each segment

Are computed using

Landgrebe’s

Prescribed Wake Model

© L. Sankar Helicopter

155

Aerodynamics

Biot-Savart Law

Control Point

r2

r1

Segment

© L. Sankar Helicopter

156

Aerodynamics

Biot-Savart Law (Continued)

r1 r2 1 r1 r2

G

r1 r2 r1 2

r

Vinduced 2 2 2 2

4p r1r2 r1 r2 rc r1 r2 2r1 r2

2

Denominator from going to zero.

© L. Sankar Helicopter

157

Aerodynamics

Overview of Vortex Theory Based

Computations (Code supplied)

• Compute inflow using BEM first, using Biot-Savart law during

subsequent iterations.

• Compute radial distribution of Loads.

• Convert these loads into circulation strengths. Compute the

peak circulation strength. This is the strength of the tip vortex.

• Assume a prescribed vortex trajectory.

• Discard the induced velocities from BEM, use induced

velocities from Biot-Savart law.

• Repeat until everything converges. During each iteration,

adjust the blade pitch angle (trim it) if CT computed is too

small or too large, compared to the supplied value.

© L. Sankar Helicopter

158

Aerodynamics

Free Wake Models

• These models remove the need for empirical

prescription of the tip vortex structure.

• We march in time, starting with an initial guess for

the wake.

• The end points of the segments are allowed to freely

move in space, convected the self-induced velocity at

these end points.

• Their positions are updated at the end of each time

step.

© L. Sankar Helicopter

159

Aerodynamics

Free Wake Trajectories

(Calculations by Leishman)

© L. Sankar Helicopter

160

Aerodynamics

Vertical Descent of Rotors

© L. Sankar Helicopter

161

Aerodynamics

Background

• We now discuss vertical descent operations, with

and without power.

• Accurate prediction of performance is not done. (The

engine selection is done for hover or climb

considerations. Descent requires less power than

these more demanding conditions).

• Discussions are qualitative.

• We may use momentum theory to guide the analysis.

© L. Sankar Helicopter

162

Aerodynamics

Phase I: Power Needed in

Climb and Hover

Power

P T V v

V V

2

T

T

2 2 2 A

© L. Sankar Helicopter

163

Aerodynamics

Non-Dimensional Form

It is convenient to non-dimensionalize these graphs, so that

universal behavior of a variety of rotors can be studied.

non - dimensiona lized by hover

T

inflow velocity v h

2 A

Power T(V v) is non - dimensiona lized

by Tv h

© L. Sankar Helicopter

164

Aerodynamics

Momentum Theory gives incorrect

Estimates of Power in Descent

(V+v)/vh

P T V v

V V

2

T

T 0

2 2 2 A

Descent Climb

V/vh

No matter how fast we descend, positive power is

still required if we use the above formula.

This is incorrect!

© L. Sankar Helicopter

165

Aerodynamics

The reason..

V is down

V is up

V+v is down

V+v is down

V is down

V+2v is down V is down

V is up V is up

V+2v is down

Physically acceptable Flow Slipstream is down

© L. Sankar Outside flow is up

Helicopter

166

Aerodynamics

In reality..

• The rotor in descent operates in a number of

stages, depending on how fast the vertical

descent is in comparison to hover induced

velocity.

– Vortex Ring State

– Turbulent Wake State

– Windmill Brake State

© L. Sankar Helicopter

167

Aerodynamics

Vortex Ring State

(V is up, V+v is down, V+2v is down)

The rotor pushes tip vortices down.

them up

donut-shaped ring.

and bursts.

V is up

V is up

Flow is highly unsteady.

© L. Sankar

Can only

Aerodynamics be empirically analyzed.

Helicopter

168

Performance in Vortex Ring State

Experimental data

Has scatter

V/vh

Cross-over

At V=-1.71vh

© L. Sankar Helicopter

169

Aerodynamics

Turbulent Wake State

(V is up, V+v is up, V+2v is down)

V+v is up

Rotor looks and behaves like a bluff

Body (or disk). The vortices look

Like wake behind the bluff body.

Can not analyze using momentum

V+2v is theory

V is up

down

V is up

Need empirical data.

© L. Sankar Helicopter

170

Aerodynamics

Performance in Turbulent Wake State

Turbulent V/vh

Wake State Cross-over

At V=-1.71vh

Notice power is –ve

Engine need not supply power

© L. Sankar

Aerodynamics

Helicopter

171

Wind Mill Brake State

(V is up, V+v is up, V+2v is up)

V+v is up

Flow is well behaved.

V is up T = - 2Av(V+v)

V+2v

V is up

up Notice the minus sign. This is because

v (down) and V+v (up) have opposite signs.

© L. Sankar The product must be positive..

Helicopter

172

Aerodynamics

Power is Extracted in

Wind Mill Brake State

We can solve the equation :

T -2Av(V v)

to get

2

V V T

v

2 2 2 A

P T (V v)

Sign convention :

V 0 is climb, V 0 is descent

P 0 means power is consumed

P 0 means power is extracted.

In this case, power is extracted

from the freestream , as in a wind mill.

© L. Sankar Helicopter

173

Aerodynamics

Physical Mechanism for Wind Mill Power

Extraction

Lift

V+v

r

The airfoil experiences an induced thrust, rather than

induced drag!

This causes the rotor to rotate without any need for

supplying power or torque. This is called autorotation.

Pilots can take advantage

© L. Sankar

of this if Helicopter

power is lost.

174

Aerodynamics

Complete Performance Map

Descent Power/TVh Climb

State

Cross-over

At V=-1.71vh

© L. Sankar Helicopter

175

Aerodynamics

Consider the cross-over Point

We can estimate the drag

coefficien t of the rotor as follows :

If the vehicle descents

T ACD 1.7 v h

1 2

at this speed, power is 2

neither supplied, T

Use v h

nor extracted. 2 A

V -1.7vh C D 1.4

The rotor has the same drag coefficien t

as a parachute with equivalent area A.

As good as a parachute! !!

© L. Sankar Helicopter

176

Aerodynamics

Hover Performance

© L. Sankar Helicopter

177

Aerodynamics

Background

• Blades are usually hinged near the root, to alleviate

high bending moments at the root.

• This allows the blades t flap up and down.

• Aerodynamic forces cause the blades to flap up.

• Centrifugal forces causes the blades to flap down.

• In hover, an equilibrium position is achieved, where

the net moments at the hinge due to the opposing

forces (aerodynamic and centrifugal) cancel out and

go to zero.

© L. Sankar Helicopter

178

Aerodynamics

Schematic of Forces and Moments

dL

r

dCentrifugal

Force

0

This assumption is adequate for most aerodynamic calculations.

Effects of hinge offset are discussed in many classical texts.

© L. Sankar Helicopter

179

Aerodynamics

Moment at the Hinge due to

Aerodynamic Forces

From blade element theory, the lift force dL =

1

2

2 2

c r v Cl dr cr Cl dr

1

2

2

Counterclockwise moment due to lift =

1

c r rC l dr

2

2

Integrating over all such strips,

Total counterclockwise moment =

r R

r 0 2 cr rCl dr

1 2

© L. Sankar Helicopter

180

Aerodynamics

Moment due to Centrifugal Forces

The centrifugal force acting on this strip = r

2

dm

2 rdm

r

Where “dm” is the mass of this strip.

This force acts horizontally.

The moment arm = r sin0 ~ r 0

Clockwise moment due to centrifugal forces = 2 r 2 0 dm

r R

0

2 2 2

r 0 dm I

r 0

© L. Sankar Helicopter

181

Aerodynamics

At equilibrium..

r R

I 0 cr rCl dr

2 1 2

r 0

2

rR

1

r 0 2 Cl dr acR 4

3

cr r R 3

r r

0

I

I r 0 R a effectived R

Lock Number, g

© L. Sankar Helicopter

182

Aerodynamics

Lock Number, g

• The quantity g=acR4/I is called the Lock number.

• It is a measure of the balance between the aerodynamic

forces and inertial forces on the rotor.

• In general g has a value between 8 and 10 for articulated

rotors (i.e. rotors with flapping and lead-lag hinges).

• It has a value between 5 and 7 for hingeless rotors.

• We will later discuss optimum values of Lock number.

© L. Sankar Helicopter

183

Aerodynamics

Chapter 4

Rotating Blade Motion

Yanjie Li

Harbin Institute Of Technology

Shenzhen Graduate School

Outline

• Blade motions

• Types of rotors

• Equilibrium about the flapping hinge

• Equilibrium about the lead-lag hinge

• Equation of motion for a flapping blade

• Dynamics of blade flapping with a hinge offset

• Blade feathering and the swashplate

• Dynamics of a lagging blade with a hinge offset

• Coupled flap-lag motion and pitch-flap motion

• Other types of rotors

• Rotor trim

4.1 Rotating Blade Motion

3 blade motions

• flapping

– balance asymmetries in

forward flight

• lead-lag

– balance Coriolis forces

• feathering

– change pitch – change

collective thrust

– cyclic: pitch, roll control

4.2 Types of Rotors

4.3 Equilibrium about the Flapping Hinge

• balance of aerodynamic, centrifugal forces

– flapping (conning) angle

Centrifugal Force (CF)

Moment at the

rotational axis by CF

Aerodynamic moment about the flap hinge:

equilibrium

4.4 Equilibrium about the Lead-Lag Hinge

Centrifugal Force on the blade element component ⊥ blade axis

Lag moment

From geometry:

4.5 Equation of Motion for Flapping Blade

In hovering flight, coning angle is a constant

In forward flight, coning angle varies in a periodic manner with azimuth

Centrifugal moment:

Inertial moment:

Aerodynamic

moment:

M>0,

clockwise,

reducing

Define mass moment of inertia about the flap hinge

For uniform inflow

UT y

e=0

A more general form:

where

Undamped natural frequency

1

If no aerodynamic forces the flapping motion reduces to

In forward flight, the blade flapping motion can be represented as infinite Fourier series

Fourier coefficient

Assume: uniform inflow, linearly twisted blades, can

M be founded analytically

Substituting UT ,Uin

P Section 3.5

The general flapping equation of motion cannot be solved analytically for 0

Two

options:

Assume the solution for the blade flapping motion to be given by the first harmonics only:

We have

Notice by setting

4.7 Dynamics of Blade Flapping with a Hinge Offset

Hinge at eR

Forces

inertia

centrifugal

aerodynamic

Moment balance

Mass moment of

inertia Non-dimensional flap frequency

Analogy with a spring-mass-damper system:

undamped natural frequency

1/ rev

Flapping equation

4.8 Blade Feathering and the Swashplate

Blade pitch

where

control input

Swashplate=Rotating plate + No-rotating plate

The movement of the swashplate result in changes in blade pitch

4.9 Review of Rotor Reference Axes

Several physical plane can be used to describe the equations of motion of the rotor blade.

Each has advantages over others for certain types of analysis.

Hub Plane (HP)

Perpendicular to the rotor shaft

An observer can see both flapping and feathering

Complicated, but linked to a physical part of the aircraft; often used for blade dynamic

and flight dynamic analyses

No Feathering Plane (NFP) :

An observer cannot see the variation in cyclic pitch, i.e.

still see a cyclic variation in blade flapping angle; used for performance analyses

Tip Path Plane (TPP)

cannot see the variation in flapping, i.e.

used for aerodynamic analyses

Control Plane (CP)

represents the commanded cyclic pitch plane; swashplate plane

Schematic of rotor reference axes and planes

4.10 Dynamics of a Lagging Blade with a Hinge Offset

Offset = eR

A wrong typo

Taking moments about the lag hinge:

Moment of inertia about the lag hinge Lag frequency with a hinge offset

Centrifugal moment about the lag

hinge is much smaller than in flapping

Uncoupled natural frequency is

much smaller

4.11 Coupled Flap-Lag Motion

coupled equation of motion

where

coupled equation for motion

where

4.12 Coupled Pitch-Flap Motion

Pitch-flap coupling using a hinge to reduce cyclic flapping

Used to avoid a lead-lag hinge, save weight

Achieved by placing the pitch link/pitch horn connection to lie off the flap hinge axis

Flapping by , pitch angle is reduced by

Eq. 4.39

4.13 Other Types of Rotors

4.13.2 Semi-Rigid or Hingeless Rotors

• If feathering is also replaced: bearingless

• Equivalent spring stiffness at an equivalent hinge offset e

Natural flapping frequency

rotor

Equivalent hinge offset and flap stiffness can be found by looking at the slope at a

point at 75% of the radius

4.14 Introduction to Rotor Trim

• Trim

– calculation of rotor control settings, rotor disk orientation(pitch, flap) &

overall helicopter orientation for the prescribed flight conditions

• Controls

– Collective pitch

• increases all pitch angles change thrust

– Lateral & Longitudinal cyclic pitch

• Lateral ( ) tilts rotor disk left & right

• Longitudinal ( ) tilts rotor disk forward & aft

– Yaw

• use tail rotor thrust

cross coupling is possible, flight control system can minimize cross-coupling effects

4.14.1 Equations for Free-Flight Trim

Moments can be written in terms of the contribution from different parts

where hub plane (HP) is used as reference and flight path angle is

Assume: No sideslip (fuselage side force ) ;no contribution from horizontal and

vertical tails

vertical force equilibrium

Lateral force equilibrium

Assume small angles

Torque

Thrust = average blade lift number of blades

Assume ; ;

rotor torque, side force, drag force & moments can be computed similarly

rotor side force

additional equations for ' s

The vehicle equilibrium equations, along with the inflow equations, can be written as

Tables 5.1 from White

Induced Flow Production

Non-dimensional forms..

v 1 T CT

Induced inflow i

R R 2 A 2

Ideal Power in Hover

FM

Actual Power in Hover

CT

CT

Tv 2

P CP

© L. Sankar Helicopter

222

Aerodynamics

Off Set Hinges

Induced Flow

Angle of Attack

AIRFLOW DURING A HOVER

The rotor creates a

pressure difference !p

which accelerates flow

through it. The velocity

far upstream is 0, at

the rotor vi and far

downstream v".

air through the rotor.

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