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ELECTROMAGNETIC

INTERFERENCE
INDEX
1. Introduction.
2. Types of EMI.
(a) Radiated EMI.
(b) Conducted EMI.
3. Sources of EMI.
4. EMI Coupling Mechanism.
5. EMI Elimination.
(a) Grounding.
(b) Shielding.
(c) Filtering.
6. EMI Testing.
(a) Advantages of EMI Testing.
INTRODUCTION
Electromagnetic interference is electromagnetic energy that
adversely affects the performance of electronic equipment by
creating undesirable responses or complete operational failure.
EMI, in simple words, is an unwanted electrically transmitted
signal. The signal propagates other electronics equipment by
interfering with their proper operation by altering of normal
parameters.
The interference can appears as noise on a phone line. erratic
Data bits on a digital transmission, false imaging in MRI
equipment and numerous other malfunctions.
Electromagnetic interference
Types of EMI
• Radiated EMI – Radiated EMI is interference that travels from
a source, through the air to the receiving device.
Radiated EMI is the easiest form of interference
and the most common form experienced.
• Conducted EMI – Conducted EMI is the interference that travels
along a conducting path. The source may be
directly attached to the conducting path or
may be radiated EMI propagated along the
power line , telephone line conduit, cable tray
or any other object able to transmit the
offending frequencies.
Radiated and Conducted EMI
Source of EMI
Source device causing EMI may be within the system or it may be
external to the system . Further more, source of EMI may be natural
(electrostatic discharge due to lightning) or man made interference
due to mobile transmitters, TV broadcast etc.
EMI Coupling Mechanism

EMI is caused by undesirable radiated electromagnetic field


or conducted voltage and current. The interference is produced
by a source (emitter) and is detected by a receptor device via
a coupling path. The coupling path may involve one or more
of the following coupling mechanism:
1. Conduction – electric current.
2. Radiation – electromagnetic field.
3. Capacitive coupling – electric field.
4. Inductive coupling – magnetic field.
EMI Elimination
The three most commonly used methods of reduction of EMI are:
1. Grounding – Grounding means providing an electrically
conductive path between two points to connect electronic equipment
of a system to one another to a reference point which is called
ground .
Grounding establish low impedance path.
2. Shielding – Shielding is define as the process of preventing radiation
coupling into or out of the defined areas or regions . It acts as a
barrier which prevents entry and exit of radiated electromagnetic
energy. Shielding confine radiated energy.
3. Filtering – Filtering prevents radiation from the input form coupling
direct from the capacitor . This construction has inherently low self
inductance. Filtering control special content.
Grounding
Shielding
Filtering
EMI Testing
EMI testing is required by today’s designers to ensure the
electronic systems developed in various installations perform
their designated takes without causing interference to other
electronic systems located within the operating environment.
• Emission Testing – Emission test are perform to ensure
that the system do not emit energy above applicable limits
through power or signal lines or by radiated energy through
the atmosphere.
• Susceptibility – Susceptibility tests are performed to ensure
that the system can withstand energy applied at specified
limits.
EMI Testing
Advantage of EMI Testing

• Greatly reduces the probability of equipment, when


integrated into and operated in a system, either interfering
with or being interfered by other equipment.
• Increases the probability that equipment, when integrated
will meat the overall system electromagnetic environment
effect.
• Helps prevent costly troubleshooting and fixing EMI
problem later.
• Helps with immunity to other environment such as
electromagnetic pulse, electromagnetic discharge etc.