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UNCONVENTIONAL

MACHINING PROCESSES
YEAR: IV – I MECH

T. ANJANEYULU
ASSISTANT PROFESSOR
DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL
ENGINEERING
1. INTRODUCTION
 MACHINING-removal of material from a raw
material in order to obtain the desired shape and
dimensions for final part.
 based on principle and technology used
classified into two types,
 Conventional Machining Processes
 Un Conventional Machining Processes(UCMP)
CMP UCMP

Mechanism of material removal: Mechanism of material removal:

shear deformation along the shear Impact erosion on work piece or


plane and chip formation in work Melting and evaporation or
piece by use of cutting tool and Corrosive reaction
machine tool
source of energy :
The cutting tool and work piece are mechanical, thermal, chemical and
always in physical contact, with a electrochemical.
relative motion against each other

Types- Turning, Shaping, Drilling, Types- AJM, USM,ECM, ECG,EBM…


milling..

PRODUCTS-
WHY UCMP

COMPLEX GEOMETRY

A zigzag cavity in a block of high


strength alloy is to be finish
machined

--traditional machining is not


feasible..
Machining of small cavities , slits, blind holes or
through holes— traditional machining is not feasible
Work piece material is too hard, strong, or tough

 blades and vanes for aerospace and stationary gas


and steam turbine, Made of Nickel-base super alloys
• Deep hole with small hole diameter – e.g. φ 1.5 mm hole with l/d = 20
• Machining of composites
 These requirements led to creation of new
techniques which are adopted in Non Traditional
Manufacturing(NTM)
4.1 SYLLABUS-JNTUH
UNIT-I
SYLLABUS
Introduction: Need for non- traditional machining methods-classification of modern
machining process-considerations in process selection, Materials & applications
Ultrasonic machining- Elements of the Process, Mechanics of material removal process
parameters, Economic considerations, Applications And Limitations

TEXT BOOK :
1. Advanced machining processes/ VK Jain/ Allied publishers.
REFERENCES :
1. Modern Machining Process / Pandey P.C. and Shah H.S./ TMH.
2. New Technology / Bhattacharya A/ The Institution of Engineers, India 1984.
2. Modern Production / Operations Management / Baffa & Rakesh Sarin.
4. Unconventional Machining Processes - Jagadeesha .T
Comparison
Factor Conventional Manufacturing Processes Non-Conventional Manufacturing Processes

Mechanism of 1.Generally macroscopic chip formation Material removal may occur with chip formation or even no chip
material removal by shear deformation. formation may take place.

For example in AJM, chips are of microscopic size and in case of


Electrochemical machining material removal occurs due to
electrochemical dissolution at atomic level

Physical contact There may be a physical tool present. There may not be a physical tool present. For example in laser jet
of tool & for example a cutting tool in a machining, machining is carried out by laser beam. However in
Workpiece Lathe Machine Electrochemical Machining there is a physical tool that is very
much required for machining.

Tool hardness Cutting tool is harder than work piece There may not be a physical tool present.
At room temperature as well as under For example in laser jet machining, machining is carried out by
machining conditions laser beam. However in Electrochemical Machining there is a
physical tool that is very much required for machining.

Energy form Material removal takes place due to Mostly NTM processes do not necessarily use mechanical energy
application to provide material removal. They use different energy domains to
of cutting forces – energy domain provide machining.
can be classified as mechanical
For example, in USM, AJM, WJM mechanical energy is used to
machine material, whereas in ECM electrochemical dissolution
constitutes material removal.
Comparison

Factor Conventional Manufacturing Processes Non-Conventional Manufacturing Processes

Tool life Tool life is lessdue to high surface Tool life is more
contact and wear.
waste of Higher waste of material due to Lower waste of material due to low or no wear.
material high wear.

MRR High low

accuracy and Lower accuracy and surface finish. Higher accuracy and surface finish.
surface
finish.

Geometry Complex 3D objects and cavities More complex geometry and 3D objects can be produced
cannot be produced

Mechanics
Comparison

Factor Conventional Manufacturing Non-Conventional Manufacturing Processes


Processes
capital cost Lower capital cost Higher capital cost

set-up of Easy set-up of equipment. Complex set-upequipment.


equipment

Skilled Skilled or un-skilled operator Skilled operator required.


operator may required

Operating Generally they are manual to Generally they are fully automated process.
operate.

prototype They cannot be used to produce Can be used to produce prototype


parts prototype parts very efficiently
and economically. parts very efficientlyAnd economically.
NTM Classification

Based on the principle form of energy nontraditional manufacturing


processes can be classified into following groups:
1. Mechanical - Erosion of work material by a high velocity stream of
abrasives and/or fluid
Example: USM, AWJM, WJM.
2. Electrical - Electrochemical energy removes material
Example: ECM, ECD, ECG.
3. Thermal - Thermal energy applied to small portion of work surface,
removes material by fusion and/or vaporization
Example: EDM, WEDM, EBM, LBM, PAM, IBM
4. Chemical - chemical etchants selectively (using a mask) remove a
portion of a workpiece.
Example: Chemical milling, Blanking, Engraving and
Photochemical machining.
Principal of NTM Processes

Mechanical Energy Thermal Energy Methods

Chemical Methods
COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS & SELECTION
OF UCM process

 Physical parameters
MRR
Capability to shape
 For micro-drilling operation, the only process which
has good capability to micro drill is laser beam
machining while for drilling shapes having
slenderness ratio, l/D < 20, the process USM, ECM
and EDM will be most suitable. EDM and ECM
processes have good capability to make pocketing
operation (shallow or deep).
 For surface contouring operation, ECM process is
most suitable but other processes except EDM have
no application for contouring operation.
Applicability to materials
Machining characteristics
 The process capabilities of non-conventional manufacturing
processes have been compared in the metal removal rates by
ECM and PAM are respectively one-fourth and 1.25 times that
of conventional whereas others are only small fractions of it.
 Power requirement of ECM and PAM is also very high when
compared with other non-conventional machining processes.
 This involves higher capital cost for those processes.
 ECM has very low tool wear rate but it has certain fairly
serious problems regarding the contamination of the
electrolyte used and the corrosion of machine parts.
 The surface finish and tolerance obtained by various processes
except PAM is satisfactory.
Economics of the processes
 The capital cost of ECM is very high when compared with
traditional mechanical contour grinding and other non-
conventional machining processes whereas capital costs for
AJM and PAM are comparatively low.
 EDM has got higher tooling cost than other machining
processes.
 Power consumption is very low for PAM and LBM processes
whereas it is greater in case of ECM.
 The metal removal efficiency is very high for EBM and LBM
than for other processes.
 In conclusion, the suitability of application of any of the
processes is dependent upon various factors and must be
considered all or some of them before applying no
conventional processes.