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Chapter 5

James S. Walker

Chapter 5

Newton’s Laws of Motion

Units of Chapter 5

• Force and Mass

• Newton’s First Law of Motion

• Newton’s Second Law of Motion

• Newton’s Third Law of Motion

• The Vector Nature of Forces: Forces

in Two Dimensions

• Weight

• Normal Forces

Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc.

5-1 Force and Mass

Force: push or pull

Force is a vector – it has magnitude and

direction

5-1 Force and Mass

how hard it is to

change an object’s

velocity.

Mass can also be

thought of as a

measure of the quantity

of matter in an object.

5-2 Newton’s First Law of Motion

moving?

Only if there is friction! In the absence of any

net external force, an object will keep moving

at a constant speed in a straight line, or

remain at rest.

This is also known as the law of inertia.

5-2 Newton’s First Law of Motion

object – magnitude or direction – a net

force is required.

which the first law is true. Accelerating

reference frames are not inertial.

5-3 Newton’s Second Law of Motion

Two equal weights exert twice the force of one;

this can be used for calibration of a spring:

5-3 Newton’s Second Law of Motion

more experiments.

Acceleration is proportional to force:

5-3 Newton’s Second Law of Motion

5-3 Newton’s Second Law of Motion

5-3 Newton’s Second Law of Motion

the acceleration is due to the net force:

(5-1)

5-3 Newton’s Second Law of Motion

5-3 Newton’s Second Law of Motion

Free-body diagrams:

A free-body diagram shows every force acting

on an object.

• Sketch the forces

• Isolate the object of interest

• Choose a convenient coordinate system

• Resolve the forces into components

• Apply Newton’s second law to each

coordinate direction

Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc.

5-3 Newton’s Second Law of Motion

Example of a free-body diagram:

5-4 Newton’s Third Law of Motion

different objects:

If object 1 exerts a force F on object 2, then

object 2 exerts a force – F on object 1.

These forces are called action-reaction pairs.

5-4 Newton’s Third Law of Motion

5-4 Newton’s Third Law of Motion

Although the forces are the same, the

accelerations will not be unless the objects

have the same mass.

Contact forces:

The force exerted by

one box on the other is

different depending on

which one you push.

5-5 The Vector Nature of Forces: Forces in

Two Dimensions

The easiest way to handle forces in two

dimensions is to treat each dimension

separately, as we did for kinematics.

5-6 Weight

object exerts on its support. In the case when

an object lays on the horizontal surface:

5-6 Weight

Apparent weight:

Your perception of your weight is based on the

contact forces between your body and your

surroundings.

If your surroundings

are accelerating,

your apparent

weight may be more

or less than your

actual weight.

5-7 Normal Forces

the force exerted by

a surface on an

object.

5-7 Normal Forces

or less than the gravitational force.

5-7 Normal Forces

the surface.

Summary of Chapter 5

• Force: a push or pull

• Mass: measures the difficulty in

accelerating an object

• Newton’s first law: if the net force on an

object is zero, its velocity is constant

• Inertial frame of reference: one in which the

first law holds

• Newton’s second law:

• Free-body diagram: a sketch showing all the

forces on an object

Summary of Chapter 5

• Newton’s third law: If object 1 exerts a force F

on object 2, then object 2 exerts a force – F on

object 1.

• Contact forces: an action-reaction pair of

forces produced by two objects in physical

contact

• Forces are vectors

• Newton’s laws can be applied to each

component of the forces independently

• Weight: gravitational force exerted by the Earth

on an object

Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc.

Summary of Chapter 5

• On the surface of the Earth, W = mg

• Apparent weight: force felt from contact with a

floor or scale

• Normal force: force exerted perpendicular to a

surface by that surface

• Normal force may be equal to, lesser than, or

greater than the object’s weight

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