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Chapter 3

Project Organization
& Project Manager

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内容提要 Contents
1. Project Stakeholders
2. Organizational Structure
3. Project Teams
4. Leadership and Project Manager

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Project Stakeholders
3.1.1 Definition
Project stakeholders are defined as all individuals or groups who
have an active stake in the project and can potentially impact,
either positively or negatively, its development.

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Figure 3.1 Relationship Between Stakeholders and the Project

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3.1Project Stakeholders

3.1.2 Identifying Project Stakeholders

Work for the project
provide people or resources for the project
have their routines disrupted by the project

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Table 3.1 Examples of Project Stakeholders
Internal External
Owner Suppliers
Sponsor Partners
Project Manager Creditors
Functional Managers Government Agencies
Competing Projects Special Interest Groups
Affected by Project Financing Source Neighbors
Process Project Core Team Client
Subject Matter Experts Professional Groups
Employees Media
Stockholders Taxpayers
Internal Customer Public
Affected by Project Sponsor Users Special Interest Groups
Result Neighbors
Potential Customers

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Fig. 3.2

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3.2 Organizational
3.2.1 Forms of Organization Structure
组织可以采用多种结构方式。组织结构并不是偶然出现 的,
它是企业应对外界压力的反应。运作环境是影响组织 结构的
Organization can be structured in an infinite variety of ways. What is
important to understand is that typically, the structure of an organization
does not happen by chance, it is the result of a reasoned response to
forces acting on the firm. Operating environment is the most important
determinants or factors influencing an organization’s structure.

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3.2 组织结构
2.2 Organizational Structure
The classicStructure
functional organization is a hierarchy where
each employee has one clear superior. Staff members are
grouped by specialty, such as production, marketing,
engineering, and accounting at the top level. Engineering may
be further subdivided into functional organizations that support
the business of the larger organization, such as mechanical and
electrical. Functional organizations still have projects, but the
scope of the project is usually limited to the boundaries of the
function. The engineering department in a functional
organization will do its project work independent of the
manufacturing or marketing departments.

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Figure3.4 Functional Organization
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Table 3.2 Strengths and Weaknesses of Functional Structures

Strengths for Project Management Weaknesses for Project Management

1.Projects are developed within the 1. Functional isolation makes it

basic functional structure of the difficult to achieve cross-functional
organization, requiring no disruption or cooperation.
change to the firm’s design. 2. Lack of customer focus.
2.Enables the development of in- depth 3. Projects generally take longer to
knowledge and intellectual capital. complete due to structural problems,
3.Allows for standard career paths. slower communication, lack of direct
Project team members only perform ownership of the project, and
their duties as needed while competing priorities among the
maintaining maximum connection with functional departments.
their functional group. 4. Projects may be sub-optimized due
to varying interest or commitment
across functional boundaries.
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3.2 Organizational
2.2 Organizational
cture Structure
.2 Projectized organization

In a projectized organization, team members are often co-located. Most of
the organization’s resources are involved in project work, and project
managers have a great deal of independence and authority. Projectized
organizations often have organizational units called departments, but
these groups either report directly to the project manager or provide
support services to the various projects.

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Figure 3.5 Projectized Organization
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Table 3.3 Strengths and Weaknesses of Project Structures
Strengths for Project Management Weaknesses for Project Management

1.Assigns authority solely to the project 1. Setting up and maintaining teams

managers. can be expensive.
2.Leads to improved communication 2. Potential for project team members
across the organization and among to develop loyalty to the project rather
functional groups. than to the overall organization.
3.Promotes the effective and speedy 3. Difficult to maintain a pooled supply
decision making. of intellectual capital.
4.Promotes the creation of cadres of 4. Concern among project team
project management experts. members about their future once the
5.Encourages rapid response to market project ends.

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3.2 组织结构
2.2 Organizational Structure
.3 矩阵型项目组织Structure
Matrix organization
— 弱矩阵型组织保留了职能型组织的许多特征,项目经 理的
— 强矩阵型组织则具有项目型组织的许多特征,拥有相 当大
— 平衡矩阵型组织承认设置项目经理的必要性,但项目 经理

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3.2 Organizational
2.2 Organizational Structure
Matrix organizations are a blend of functional and projectized
- Weak matrices maintain many of the characteristics of a
functional organization and the project manager role is more that of
a coordinator or expediter than that of a manager.
- In similar fashion, strong matrices have many of the
characteristics of the projectized organization, and can have full-
time project managers with considerable authority and full-time
project administrative staff.
- While the balanced matrix organization recognizes the need
for a project manager, it does not provide the project manager with
the full authority over the project and project funding.
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图3.6 弱矩阵型组织
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Figure3.6 Weak Matrix Organization
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Figure3.7 Balanced Matrix Organization
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图3.8 强矩阵型组织
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Figure3.8 Strong Matrix Organization
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Table 3.4 Strengths and Weaknesses of Matrix Structures

Strengths for Project Management Weaknesses for Project

1.Suited to dynamic environments. 1.Dual hierarchies mean two bosses.
2.Emphasizes the dual importance of 2.Requires significant time to be spent
project management and functional negotiating the sharing of critical
efficiency. resources between projects and
3.Promotes coordination across departments.
functional units. 3.Can be frustrating for workers
4.Maximizes scarce resources between caught between competing project and
competing project and functional functional demands.

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3.2 Organizational
2.2 Organizational Structure
.4 复合型项目组织 Composite Organization
一个组织内部同时开展2个以上项目时,有的项目 属于
强矩阵型项目组织,有的项目属于职能型项目组 织,有
When an organization undertakes more than 2 projects, some
project may belong to strong matrix type, other project is of
functional type, and some team members may participate in 2
or more projects at the same time.

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图3.9 复合型组织
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Figure3.9 Composite Organization
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Table 3.5 Organizational Structure Influence on Projects

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图3.10 经理感知的不同结构对项目成功的有效

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3.3 Project Teams
3.3.1 Definition
A project team consists of a group of members who are
working together cooperatively to realize the goals of a
specific project.

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3.3 项目团队 Project Teams
2. Characteristics
A project team is a special organization aimed to complete a
specific project, with a very clear objective;
2.A one-time temporary organization;
3.Consists of a project manager
and management staffs and workers;

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3.3 项目团队 Project Teams
(4) Emphasizing teamwork spirit & cooperation;
(5)In some cases, receive dual leadership;
(6)Different teams have different composition of staffs, stability
and the balance of power & responsibility;

(7)With flexibility and gradualness.

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3.3 项目团队 Project Teams
3.3.3 Characteristics of Effective Project Team
Successful teams share common underlying features, including a
clear sense of mission, an understanding of team
interdependencies, cohesiveness, a high level of trust, a shared
sense of enthusiasm, and a result’s orientation.

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3.3 项目团队 Project Teams
3.3.5 Project Human Resource Management
Project human resource management includes the processes that
organize, manage, and lead the project team, which can be
divided into 4 steps:

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3.3 项目团队 Project Teams

1. Develop Human Resource Plan

Acquire Project Team
Develop Project Team
Manage Project Team

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1. 制定人力资源计划 Develop Human Resource
• 组织结构图 Organization

Figure 3.15 Roles and Responsibility Definition Formats

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1. 制定人力资源计划 Develop Human Resource
• 职责分配矩阵RACI Matrix

图3.16 RACI形式的职责分配矩阵
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1. 制定人力资源计划 Develop Human Resource
• 职位描述Position Descriptions

Figure 3.16 Responsibility Assignment Matrix (RAM) Using a

RACI Format
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1. 制定人力资源计划 Develop human resource
• 人员配备管理计划 Staffing
plan Management Plan

图3.17 资源直方图举例
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1. 制定人力资源计划 Develop human resource
• 人员配备管理计划 Staffing
plan Management Plan

Figure 3.17 Illustrative Resource Hlstogram

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3.3 项目团队 Project Teams
2. Acquire Project Team

Building the project team is the process of obtaining human resources
needed to complete the project. The following figure illustrates
several key decision points or critical interfaces in developing a
project team.

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3.3 Project Teams
3. Develop Project Team

The process of group development is a dynamic one. The

group goes through several maturation stages that are often
readily identifiable. These stages are illustrated in the
following table and figure.

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Table 3.7 Stages of group development

Stage Defining Characteristics

Forming Members get to know each other and lay the basis for
project and team ground rules.
Storming Conflict begins as team members begin to resist authority
and demonstrate hidden agendas and prejudices.
Norming Members agree to operating procedures and seek to work
together, develop closer relationships, and commit to the
project development process.
Performing Group members work together to accomplish their tasks.
Adjourning Groups may disband either following the completion of the
project or through significant reassignment of team personnel.

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Forming Storming Norming Performing Adjourning

Teamwork Spirit


Figure3.19 Performances & Teamwork Spirit at Different Stages

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3.3 项目团队 Project Teams
Manage project team is the process of tracking team member
performance feedback, resolving issues, and managing changes
to optimize project performance. The project management team
observes team behavior, manages conflict, resolves issues, and
appraises team member performance. As a result of managing
the project team, change requests are submitted, the human
resource plan is updated, issues are resolved, input is provided
for performance appraisals, and lessons learned are added to the
organization’s database.

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3.3 项目团队 Project Teams
3.3.6 虚拟团队 Virtual Project Teams
.1 定义 Definition
虚拟团队是指使用电子媒体,包括电子邮件、互联网 和
远程电子会议,将分散在不同地理位置的成员联系 在一
Virtual teams involvethe use of electronic
including e-mail, the Internet, and teleconferencing to link
together members of a geographically
dispersed project team.
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3.3 项目团队 Project Teams
2.面临的挑战 Challenges
Building trust: physical separation and disconnection can make
trust slower to emerge.
Establishing the best modes of communication: the level of
comfort that permits casual banter takes time to develop.

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3.3 项目团队 Project Teams
3.Improving the Efficiency of a Virtual Team
- 如果有可能,应尽量寻求面对面交流的机会
When possible, find ways to augment virtual
communication with face-to-face opportunities.
- 不要让团队成员消失
Do not let team members disappear.
- 确立团队成员之间的行为准则
Establish a code of conduct among team members.

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3.3 项目团队 Project Teams
- 使所有团队成员参与交流
Keep all team members in the communication loop.
- 建立一个解决冲突、意见不一致和团队规范 问
Create a clear process for addressing conflict,
disagreement, and group norms.

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3.4 领导力与项目经理
Leadership & Project
3.4.1 项目经理 Project
.1 角色和职责 Role &
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organizer/ cooperator
3.4 领导力与项目经理
Leadership & Project
4. 项目经理是项目的控制者/评价者

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.2 项目经理与项目相关利益者的关
Project Manager系vs. Project Stakeholders
Project Owner

Project Team Project Manager Other Stakeholders

Project Customer

Figure3.20 Project Manager vs. Stakeholders

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3.4 领导力与项目经理
2.4 Project Manager
Leadership & Project
.3 (Skills):
(Conception Skills)
⑴(analyze problems)
⑵(solve problems)
⑶ (make right decisions)

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3.4 领导力与项目经理
2.4 Project Manager
Leadership & Project
• (Interpersonal Relations)
⑴(communication skills)
⑵(motivation skills)
⑶ (ability to influence others)
⑷ (ability to deal with people)
⑸ability to solve conflicts)

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3.4 Leadership & Project
2.4 Project

4. (Knowledge) :

– (PMBOK Knowledge)
– (General Management)
– (Professional Knowledge)

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3.4 Leadership & Project
2.4 Project
.5 项目经理的素质要求 (Quality):
(1) (Spirit to shoulder responsibility)
(2) (Spirit to innovate)
(3) (Style of seeking-truth-from-facts)
(4) (Style of working diligently)

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3.4 Leadership & Project
3.4.2 Leadership and Manager
A manager is an individual who has received a title within the
organization that permits him/her to plan, organize, direct, and
control the behavior of others within his/her department or area of
oversight. Leadership may be part of the manager’s job.

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3.4 领导力与项目经理
Leadership & Project

领导较少强调管理,而着重于人际关系。领导涉及 激
发、激励、影响并改变其他人的行为,从而实现共 同
Leadership is less about administration and more about
interpersonal relationships. Leadership involves inspiring,
motivation, influencing, and changing behaviors of others
in pursuit of a common goal.

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3.4 Leadership & Project

• 。
Leaders embrace change; managers support the status
• Leaders aim for effectiveness; managers for

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Table 3.8 Differences Between Managers and Leaders
Concerns Managers Leaders

Creation of Focus on plans and budgets; create Establish direction; create a vision and the
Purpose steps, timetables for achieving results, strategies needed to achieve it
look for resources to support goals
Developing a Organize and staff; create structure Align people with the target; communicate
Network for for achieving the plans; delegate direction by word and deed to those whose
Achieving the responsibility and authority; develop cooperation is needed; create teams that understand
Agenda procedures to guide behavior; create and share the project’s vision
monitoring systems
Execution Control and solve problems; monitor Motivate and inspire; energize people to overcome
results and apply corrective action obstacles and show personal initiative

Outcomes Produce a degree of predictability and Produce change; challenge the status quo
order; seek to maintain the status quo

Focus efficiency Effectiveness of outcomes

Timeframe Short-term, avoiding risks, Long-term, taking risks, innovating, and originating
maintaining, and imitating
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Table 3.9 Characteristics of Project Managers Who Lead

Rank Characteristics Rank Characteristics

1 Leads by example 6A good motivator

2 Visionary 7Stands up to top management
3 Technically competent when necessary
4 Decisive 8Supports team members
5 A good communicator 9Encourages new ideas

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表3.10 作为非领导者的项目经理的特

个人缺点 比例(%) 组织因素 比例(%)

树立不良的榜样 26.3 缺乏高层管理者的支持 31.5

缺乏自信 23.7 对变革的抵制 18.4

缺乏技术专长 19.7 不一致的奖励系统 13.2

差的沟通者 11.8 一个被动的,而不是主动的 、 9.2


差的激励者 6.6 缺乏资源 7.9

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Table 3.10 Characteristics of Project Manager Who Are Not Leaders

Personal Flaws Percentage Organizational Factors Percentage

(%) (%)
Sets bad example 26.3 Lack of top management 31.5
Not self-assured 23.7 Resistance to change 18.4

Lacks technical 19.7 Inconsistent reward system 13.2


Poor 11.8 A reactive organization rather 9.2

communicator than a proactive, planning one

Poor motivator 6.6 Lack of resources 7.9

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