‡ Disaster is a sudden, calamitous event bringing great damage, loss, and destruction and devastation to life and property. ‡ The damage caused by disasters is immeasurable and varies with the geographical location, climate and the type of the earth surface/degree of vulnerability. ‡ This influences the mental, socio-economic, political and cultural state of the affected area. ‡ Generally, disaster has the following effects in the concerned areas, ‡ 1. It completely disrupts the normal day to day life ‡ 2. It negatively influences the emergency systems

‡ 3. etc. . ‡ It may also be termed as a serious disruption of the functioning of society. health. causing widespread human. material or environmental losses which exceed the ability of the affected society to cope using its own resources. shelter. are affected and deteriorate depending on the intensity and severity of the disaster. Normal needs and processes like food.

A Disaster may have the following main features:‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ Unpredictability Unfamiliarity Speed Urgency Uncertainty Threat .

Volcanoes ‡ A volcano is an opening. ‡ Volcanoes are generally found where tectonic plates are diverging or converging. or rupture. . in a planet's surface or crust. ash and gases to escape from below the surface. which allows hot magma.

has examples of volcanoes caused by divergent tectonic plates pulling apart. the Pacific Ring of Fire has examples of volcanoes caused by convergent tectonic plates coming together. . ‡ By contrast. volcanoes are usually not created where two tectonic plates slide past one another.‡ A mid-oceanic ridge. for example the MidAtlantic Ridge.

‡ Volcanoes can also form where there is stretching and thinning of the Earth's crust (called "non-hotspot intraplate volcanism"). . the Wells GrayClearwater volcanic field and the Rio Grande Rift in North America. such as in the East African Rift.

for example at Hawaii. especially on rocky planets and moons. can occur far from plate boundaries. ‡ Hotspot volcanoes are also found elsewhere in the solar system. .‡ Volcanoes can be caused by mantle plumes. ‡ These so-called hotspots.

. ‡ Divergent plate boundaries. . ‡ At the mid-oceanic ridges. ‡ New oceanic crust is being formed by hot molten rock slowly cooling and solidifying.Plate Tectonics and Hotspots ‡ Map showing the divergent plate boundaries (OSR Oceanic Spreading Ridges) and recent sub aerial volcanoes. two tectonic plates diverge from one another.

and the partial melting of the mantle causing volcanism and creating new oceanic crust. .‡ The crust is very thin at mid-oceanic ridges due to the pull of the tectonic plates. ‡ The release of pressure due to the thinning of the crust leads to adiabatic expansion.

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