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Learning Outcomes

 Explain what is wellness

 Understand risk exposures and disease occurrence
 Describe dimensions of wellness

© 2011 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved

Wellness : The New Health Goal

• Health refers to a overall condition and status of a person’s body

or mind and to the presence or absence of illness or injury.
– Differs based on factors beyond your control, such as genes, age, and
family history

• Wellness refers to optimal health and vitality

– Is determined by the decisions you make about the way you live

• Enhanced wellness involves making conscious decisions to control one’s

risk factors that contribute to illness and injury.
Benefit of wellness lifestyle
 Increase energy level and productivity at work
 Improves awareness of personal needs and the
ways to meet them
 Expands and develops intellectual abilities
 Acts from an internal locus of control
 Improves cardiovascular system
 Prevent or delay the premature onset of some
chronic diseases
 Protects against cognitive decline in older persons
Wellness in the Profession :
Medicine as a Profession

 Very high responsibility

 High stress levels
 Mistakes/errors can result in injury or death of patients
 Mistakes/errors can be punished by court of law or loss
of registration
 Income may not commensurate with time spent working .
 Work life balance can be difficult in the first 10 years of
professional life.
Important ingredients for successful training
in Medicine

 Physically fit.
 Mentally stable
 Develop coping skills against stress
 Need to cultivate wellness behaviour in every day
Illness among doctors and medical
 15 % of doctors lose their fitness to practice
due to ill health.
 12% of medical students have severe depressive
 Suicide is the second leading cause of death among
medical students
 For some reasons MANY medical students do not
focus on personal health needs
Common morbidity among IMU medical

 15-20 % high stress scores

 10-15% overweight /abuse
 50-60% had family history of cardiovascular
diseases/ cancers
 2-3% had hypertension/ high normal BP
 80% had poor fitness scores
 1-2% had serious illness/under treatment/follow
Wellness and its Components
Continuously seeking
Means that you never more information about
arrive at a point where how you can improve.
there is no further
possibility of

Is an interactive process of becoming aware of and

practicing healthy choices to create a more successful
and balanced lifestyle

Considered a variety of options

Determined by you-
and selected those that seem
total collection of
to be in your best interest
for your life.
Wellness and health

Wellness is an active process of becoming

aware of and making choices toward a
healthy and fulfilling life.

"...a state of complete physical, mental, and

social well-being, and not merely the
absence of disease or infirmity." - The World
Health Organization.
Wellness Continuum
The wellness paradigm
Traditionally people seek treatment when they fall sick.
Reactive care—people react to an illness or complaints.

Maintenance of health means to take the necessary steps or

action to remain healthy and avoid ill health.

To take appropriate actions individuals need evidence based

information to remain at optimum health.

Providing Information and educating individuals is the key to

reduce morbidity and mortality.
Diseases do not occur at random!
Major Determinants of disease/health

Life Style

Genetics Disease
Social factors

Exposures and ill health

Dengue ,malaria


Unprotected sex

Diabetes, obesity, hypertension

Unhealthy diet

Congenital disease/inherited diseases

Unhealthy genes
Development of diseases.
If possible elimination of
risk factors Disability
/development of/or Limitation and
manage risk factors Screening rehabilitation
Health promotion and
Specific protection

Prenatal Risk factors Asymptomatic Symptomatic

factors disease disease
Major diseases and risk factors in
Malaysia Health Report Card

Obesity & Overweight : 47.9%

High Cholesterol : 53.5%
Diabetes : 11%
Hypertension : 25.7%
Physical Inactivity : 60.1%
Diet Lack of vegetables & fruits : 72.8%
Result: Premature morbidity & mortality

1. Awareness / Estimation of individual risk.

2. Avoidance of modifiable risk factors/ risk

Know your FOUR numbers !

Blood Pressure Readings

Body Mass index
Total Blood cholesterol


Communicable diseases

 Common diseases: dengue, PTB, HIV, Typhoid,

 Avoid exposures that increase the risk
Protect against yourself against

 Avoid mosquito bites

 Mosquitos are attracted by
Dimensions of wellness
 Physical
 Emotional
 Social
 Intellectual
 Spiritual
 Occupational
Your choice and your effort to
stay well and healthy
 Carry out your daily activities
 Develop cardiorespiratory and muscular fitness
 Maintain adequate nutrition
 Optimum weight
 Avoiding harmful habits such as smoking drinking, drug abuse
 Identifying and controlling own risk factors for disease
Cardiorespiratory Endurance
 Health-related fitness: Physical
capacities that contribute to health
 Cardiorespiratory endurance:
Ability of the body to perform
prolonged, large-muscle, dynamic exercise at
moderate-to-high intensity; central component
of health-related fitness

 Flexibility: ability
to move joints
through their full ranges
of motion
 Fat-freemass: Nonfat
component of human body,
of skeletal muscle, bone,
and water

Muscular Strength
 Muscular strength: force a muscle produces
with single maximum effort
 Metabolism: Sum of the vital processes by which
food energy and nutrients are made available to
and used by the body
 Greatermuscle mass means
higher rate of metabolism
 Muscular endurance: Ability of muscle
to remain contracted or to contract repeatedly
for a long period of time

 People are defined by their social roles
 Social means the ability to interact successfully with people
and one’s personal environment.
 Social connectedness is the ability to establish and maintain
relationships with other people
 Social relationships give people support, happiness,
contentment can call upon support networks in difficult times.
 Lack of social relationships result in loneliness and feelings of
isolation that can undermine physical and mental health
 The ability to learn and use information effectively for
personal,family and career development.
 Striving for continued growth and learning with new
 Assuming responsibility to eliminate the knowledge behavior
 Having an internal locus of control make them proactive while
external locus make them reactive
 Self efficacy is a persons belief in his/her ability to accomplish
a specific task/behavior.. Confident of success
 Gaining personal satisfaction and enrichment in
your life through work.
 Preparing for and maintaining your health, skills
and knowledge for good work performance in the
 Achieve a balance between work school and leisure
 Level of wellness is a key factor student
performance and career progression
Spiritual Wellness
 exploration of the meaning of life, have a sense of
purpose and meaning in life
 Develop your own world view, compassion,
forgiveness and a caring attitude
 your beliefs and values
 Your goals
 Your actions become more consistent with your
values and beliefs
 Helps to reduce anxiety and have higher tolerance
for pain
 Ability to cope with stress
 Express your emotions appropriately and comfortably.
 To recognize feelings and control them and not to be defeated
by setbacks and failures
 Studies shows medical students followed up for 36years
showed that students who were quick tempered were THREE
times more likely to have premature heart disease and FIVE
times likely to have a myocardial infarct
Some Tips on Wellness to medical
 Consume foods and beverages that enhance good health
 Be physically fit.
 Contribute to the common welfare of our community
 Choose a carrier that is in alignment with your beliefs and values
 Think of the meaning of life for ourselves and to be tolerant of the beliefs of others
 Aware of your own feelings, accept them rather than denying them
 Identify potential problems, choose appropriate action based on information available,
Not wait and worry (be proactive)