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Explain the operation and characteristics of junction field effect transistors.

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Objectives

Explain the operation and characteristics of junction

field effect transistors (JFET).

Understand JFET parameters

Discuss and analyze how JFETs are biased

Explain the operation and characteristics of

metal oxide semiconductor field effect transistors

(MOSFET)

Discuss and analyze how MOSFET are biased

Troubleshoot FET circuits.

Introduction

device used in amplification and switching

application.

• Field effect transistors controls current by

voltage applied to the gate. The FET’s major

advantage over the BJT is high input resistance.

• 2 basic type of FET: JFET and MOSFET

JFET

The junction field effect transistor, like a BJT, controls current

flow. The difference is the way this is accomplished. The

JFET uses voltage to control the current flow. As you

will recall the transistor uses current flow through the base-

emitter junction to control current. JFETs can be used as an

amplifier just like the BJT.

JFET

drain.

• A JFET can be either p channel or n channel.

JFET

• VDD provide a drain-to-source voltage.

• VGG sets the reverse-bias voltage between gate and source.

JFET is always operated with gate-source pn junction reverse-

biased. Reverse-biasing of the gate-source junction with a –ve

gate voltage produces a depletion region along pn junction.

JFET Biasing

• Gate-to-source junction of JFET always reverse-biased

under normal condition.

• Gate-to-source junction never allowed to become

forward-biased because the gate material is not

designed to handle any significant amount of current

may destroy the component.

• The fact gate is always reverse-biased leads to

important feature JFET has high gate input

impedance; typically in high megaohm range.

• This feature result to JFET extensively being used in

integrated circuits. Low current draw helps IC remain

cool, thus allowing more components to be placed in

a smaller physical area.

• The JFET is always operated with the gate-source pn junction reverse-

biased.

produces a depletion region

along the pn junction, which extends into the n channel

varying the gate voltage, thereby controlling the amount of drain

current, ID.

JFET Characteristics and Parameters

Let’s first take a look at the effects with a VGS of 0V. This is

produced by shorting the gate to source junction.

JFET Drain Curve

• Refer to JFET drain curve

from point A to B, ID

increases proportionally

with increases of VDD (VDS

increases as VDD increases).

• In this area, the channel

resistance is essentially

constant because the

depletion region is not large

enough to have significant

effect. [V=IR]

• This is called the ohmic

region (point A to B)

because VDS and ID are

related by Ohm’s Law.

• At point B, the curve levels off and

ID becomes constant.

increase regardless of VDD increases

is called the pinch-off voltage, VP

(point B).

drain current (IDSS) and always

specified for the condition, VGS=0V.

This area is called constant-current

area.

begins to increase rapidly with any

increase in VDS. This of course

undesirable, so JFETs operation is

always well below this value.

Illustration of JFET Drain Curve

JFET Characteristics and Parameters

From this set of curves you can see with increased voltage

applied to the gate, ID decrease and JFET reaches pinch-off at

values of VDS less than VP.

JFET Characteristics and Parameters

JFET Characteristics and Parameters

JFET Characteristics and Parameters

• We know that as VGS is increased ID will decrease. The point

that ID ceases decrease is called cutoff. The amount of VGS

required to do this is called the cutoff voltage (VGS(off ) ).

• The more negative VGS, the smaller ID becomes. When VGS

has sufficiently large negative value, ID is reduced to zero.

pinch-off voltage (Vp) and cutoff

voltage (VGS(off)) are both the

same value only opposite

polarity.

JFET Transfer Characteristic

For n-channel JFET, VGS(off) is

negative and for p-channel, VGS(off)

is positive.

Bottom end of the curve is at a

point on VGS axis equal to VGS(off)

and the top end of the curve is at a

point on ID axis equal to IDSS

(shorted-gate drain current rating

of the device).

The operating limits of JFET are:

ID=0 when VGS=VGS(off)

ID=IDSS when VGS = 0

Transfer characteristic curve can be

developed from drain characteristic

curves by plotting values of ID for

the values of VGS taken from the Show example 8-1 (pg391)

family of drain curves at pinch-off.

JFET Characteristics and Parameters

The transfer characteristic curve illustrates the control VGS has on

ID from cutoff (VGS(off) ) to pinchoff (VP). Note the parabolic shape.

The formula below can be used to determine drain current. All

these values are usually available from data sheet.

ID = IDSS(1 - VGS/VGS(off))2

JFET Forward Transfer Conductance

Forward transfer

conductance, gm of JFETs

is the changes in ID based

on changes in VGS with VDS

is constant.

Forward transfer

conductance referred to as

gm = ∆ID /∆VGS.

Unit is Siemens (s)

of the curve (near VGS=0) but

become smaller as you

increase VGS (near VGS(off)).

Transconductance

known as minimum transfer

conductance, gmo and can

be calculated using this

equation:

gmo = 2IDSS/|VGS(off)| and

gm = gmo(1 - VGS/VGS(off))

datasheet as gfs or yfs and

sometimes written as

Forward Transfer

Admittance.

Example

JFET Input Resistance

Since JFET is reverse-biased for operation, its input

resistance becomes so large. This is an advantage of using

JFET. Looking at the datasheet, you may calculate the

resistance value by using the Gate Reverse Current IGSS.

This internal input resistance can be calculated at different

VGS :

RIN=|VGS/IGSS|

As IGSS increases with temperature, RIN will decrease.

JFET Input Resistance

Example 1:

Calculate RIN if IGSS=-2nA and VGS=-20V

Solution:

RIN=|VGS/IGSS|=|-20/-2n|=10G

JFET Biasing Circuit

must be biased for proper operation, the JFET also must be

biased for operation.

•Let’s look at some of the methods for biasing JFETs.

•In most cases the ideal Q-point will be the middle of the

transfer characteristic curve which is about half of the IDSS.

•4 types of bias method are self-bias, gate-bias, voltage-

divider bias and current-source bias.

JFET Biasing- Self bias

• Self-bias is the most

common type of biasing

method for JFETs.

•Notice there is no voltage

applied to the gate, VG=0V.

•However, the voltage from

gate to source (VGS) will be

negative for n channel and

positive for p channel to keep

the junction reverse biased.

JFET Biasing- Self bias

• Uses a source resistor to help

reverse bias JFET gate. The gate

is returned to ground via RG, and

RS has been added to source

circuit.

• This voltage can be determined

using the formulas below.

•ID = IS for all JFET circuits.

VG=0 and VS=IDRS.

VGS = VG - VS

(n channel) VGS = 0-IDRS

=-IDRS

=IDRS

JFET Biasing – self bias

p-channel is the same as n-

channel except for opposite

polarity voltages.

• The drain voltage with

respect to ground is:

VD = VDD – IDRD

• Since VS = IDRS, VDS is:

VDS = VD – VS

= VDD – ID(RD+RS)

JFET Biasing-self bias

a value of RS that will give us the desired ID

and VGS. The formula below shows the

relationship.

RS = | VGS/ID |

• For a desired value of VGS, ID can be

determined from the either the transfer

characteristic curve or more practically from

the formula below. The data sheet provides

the IDSS and VGS(off).

ID = IDSS(1 - VGS/VGS(off))2

JFET Midpoint Biasing-self bias-formula

method

midpoint of its transfer characteristic curve where ID =IDSS /

2. ID is approximately one-half of IDSS when:

VGS VGS(off)/3.4

2 2

V V / 3 .4

I D I DSS 1 GS I DSS 1 0.5I DSS

GS ( off )

V V

GS ( off ) GS ( off )

JFET Midpoint Biasing-self bias-formula

method

The value of RS needed to establish VGS can be determined

by the relationship below.

RS = | VGS/ID |

value of RD to produce the desired voltage drop.

The value of RD needed can be determined by taking half of

VDD and dividing it by ID.

RD = (VDD/2)/ID

JFET Biasing- self-bias

Remember the purpose of biasing is

to set a dc operating point (Q-point).

In a self-biasing type JFET circuit, the

Q-point is determined by the given

parameters of the JFET itself and

values of RS and RD. Setting it at

midpoint on the drain curve is most

common.

One thing not mentioned in the

discussion is RG. It’s value is arbitrary

large to prevent loading on the driving

stage in a cascaded amplifier

arrangement.

JFET Midpoint Biasing-self bias-graphical

method

The transfer characteristic curve along with other parameters

can be used to determine the mid-point bias Q-point of a self-

biased JFET circuit.

First, establish dc load line by calculating VGS.

VGS = -IDRS for ID=0 and ID=IDSS

With 2 points (ID=0 and ID=IDSS), draw dc load line on the

transfer characteristic curve.

The point where the two lines intersect gives us the ID and VGS

(Q-point) needed for mid-point bias. Note that load line

extends from VGS(off)(ID= 0A) to VP(ID = IDSS)

JFET Midpoint Biasing-self bias-graphical

method

JFET Biasing- voltage divider bias-formula

to bias a JFET. R1 and R2 are used to keep

the gate-source junction in reverse bias.

Operation is no different from self-bias.

Determining VGS for a JFET voltage-divider

circuit with givenVD can be calculated with

the formulas below.

Gate voltage, VG =(R2/R1+R2)VDD

Gate-to-source voltage.VGS=VG –VS

Source voltage, VS = VG - VGS

JFET Biasing- voltage-divider bias - formula

reverse-biased (-ve value).

Drain current, ID = (VDD – VD)/RD or

Since ID=IS, then ID=VS/RS

JFET Biasing-voltage-divider bias-

graphical

• In using the transfer characteristic curve to determine the

approximate Q-point we must establish the 2 points for the

load line.

•1st step draw dc load line:

• The first point is ID = 0 and VGS =VG.

VS=IDRS=(0)RS=0V

VGS=VG-VS=VG-0=VG

The 2nd point is for VGS=0,

ID=(VG-VGS) / RS = VG / RS

ID=VG / RS and VGS=0.

• The point at which the load line intersect with transfer

characteristic curve is Q-point.

JFET Biasing – Current Source Bias

high Q-point stability by making

value of ID independently of JFET.

equals BJT collector current. IDQ

= IC

constant-current source because its

emitter current is essentially constant

if

current source.

JFET Biasing- Current source bias

stable Q-point value of ID.

Disadvantage: circuit

complexity makes it undesirable

for most applications.

JFET Biasing

same type. This would adversely affect the Q-

point for self-bias analysis. Q-point is much more

stable using voltage-divider bias and current

source bias.

The Ohmic Region

in the ohmic region is the dc drain-to- given by

source conductance GDS of the JFET.

The JFET as a Variable Resistance

active region or the ohmic region.

region for use as a voltage controlled

variable resistor.

determines the resistance by varying the

Q-point.

The JFET as a Variable Resistance

the dc load line must intersect the

characteristic curve in the ohmic

region.

the dc saturation current ID(sat), is

set much less than IDSS so that the

load line intersects most of the

characteristic curves in the ohmic

region.

The JFET as a Variable Resistance

expanded with three Q-points shown

(Q0, Q1, and Q2), depending on VGS.

• As you move along the load line in the

ohmic region, the value of RDS varies as

the Q-point falls successively on curves

with different slopes.

by varying

The JFET as a Variable Resistance

curve is less than the previous one.

more VDS, which implies an increase in RDS.

a number of applications where voltage

control of a resistance is useful.

Q0: ID= 0.270mA, VDS=0.23V

Q1: ID=0.250mA, VDS=0.33V

Q2: ID=0.230mA, VDS=0.44V

Q3: ID=0.210mA, VDS=0.56V

The JFET as a Variable Resistance

MOSFET

The metal oxide semiconductor field effect transistor (MOSFET) is the

second category of FETs. The difference is that there no pn junction

structure instead gate of MOSFET is insulated from the channel by silicon

dioxide layer. MOSFETs are static sensitive devices and must be handled

by appropriate means.

There are depletion MOSFETs (D-MOSFET) and enhancement MOSFETs

(E-MOSFET). Note the difference in construction. The E-MOSFET has no

structural channel.

D-MOSFET

The D-MOSFET can be

operated in depletion or

enhancement modes. To be

operated in depletion mode,

a negative gate-to-source

voltage is applied. With

negative gate voltage,

negative charges on the

gate repel electrons from

channel, leaving +ve ions in

their place. N-channel is

depleted of some electron,

thus decreasing channel

conductivity.

D-MOSFET

To be operated in the

enhancement mode the

gate-to-source is made

more positive, attracting

more electrons into the

channel for better current

flow and thus enhancing

the channel conductivity.

Remember we are using n

channel MOSFETs for

discussion purposes. For p

channel MOSFETs,

polarities would change.

E-MOSFET

The E-MOSFET or

enhancement MOSFET can

operate in only the

enhancement mode. With a

positive voltage above a

threshold value on the

gate, an induced channel of

thin layer of –ve charges is

created.

The conductivity of channel

is enhanced by increase

VGS and thus pulling more

electrons into channel area.

POWER MOSFET

groove MOSFET (VMOSFET) are specifically designed for high

power applications.

LDMOSFET VMOSFET

POWER MOSFET

• Dual gate MOSFETs have two gates which

helps control unwanted capacitive effects at

high frequencies.

MOSFET Characteristics and

Parameters

of MOSFETs are the same as JFETs we will cover

only the key differences.

D-MOSFET Characteristics and Parameters

The D-MOSFET operate in either +ve or –ve gate voltages. The point

on the curves where VGS=0 corresponds to IDSS. The point where

ID=0 corresponds to VGS(off). As with JFET, VGS(off)=-VP.

The equation to find drain current also the same as JFET:

ID = IDSS(1 - VGS/VGS(off) )2

Example 7-13

• For a certain D-MOSFET, IDSS=10mA and

VGS(off)=-8V.

a) Is this n-channel or a p-channel?

b) Calculate ID at VGS=-3V.

c) Calculate ID at VGS=+3V.

Solution:

a) The device has a –ve VGS(off), this is an n-channel

MOSFET.

b) ID=IDSS(1-VGS/VGS(off))2=(10mA)(1- (-3/-8))2 =3.91mA

c) ID=(10mA)(1- (+3/-8))2=18.9mA

E-MOSFET Characteristics and

Parameters

The E-MOSFET for all practical

purposes does not conduct

until VGS reaches the threshold

voltage (VGS(th)). ID when

conducting can be determined

by the formulas below. The

constant K must first be

determined from data sheet

by taking ID(on) at any given

value of VGS on a particular

MOSFET.

ID = K(VGS - VGS(th))2

MOSFET Biasing- zero bias

The three ways to bias a MOSFET are zero-bias, voltage-divider

bias, and drain-feedback bias.

For D-MOSFET zero biasing as the name implies has no applied

bias voltage to the gate. The input voltage swings it into depletion

and enhancement mode.

Zero bias

• Since VGS=0 and ID=IDSS, the drain-to-source voltage

is:

VDS = VDD – IDSSRD

by isolating it from ground as shown in figure (b)

above. Since there is no dc gate current, RG does not

affect the zero gate-to-source bias.

MOSFET Biasing- voltage divider bias

For E-MOSFETs zero biasing cannot be

used. Voltage-divider bias must be

used to set the VGS greater than the

threshold voltage (VGS(th)). ID can be

determined as follows. To determine

VGS, normal voltage divider methods

can be used. The following formula

can be applied.

VGS = (R2 / (R1+R2))VDD

VDS = VDD - IDRD

K = ID(on)/(VGS - VGS(th))2

ID = K(VGS -VGS(th))2

VDS can be determined by application of

Ohm’s law and Kirchhoff’s voltage law to

the drain circuit.

Example 7-16

• Determine VGS and VDS for E-MOSFET circuit below.

Assume MOSFET has minimum values of

ID(on)=200mA at VGS=4V and VGS(th)=2V.

Solution example 7-16

R2 15k

VGS V DD 24 3.13V

R1 R2 115k

I D( on) 200mA

K 50mA / V 2

MOSFET Biasing- drain feedback bias

is no voltage drop across RG

making VGS = VDS. With VGS

given determining ID can be

accomplished by the formula

below.

ID = (VDD – VDS)/RD

Troubleshooting

makes for easier troubleshooting circuits utilizing them.

We will discuss some the common faults associated with

FET circuits. Experience in troubleshooting is the best

teacher having basic theoretical knowledge is extremely

helpful.

Troubleshooting

If VD = VDD in a self-biased

JFET circuit it could be one of

several opens. It is a clear

indication of no drain current.

Use of senses to check for

obvious failures the first and

easiest step. Replace the FET

only if associated components

are known to be good.

If VD is less than normal in a

self-biased JFET circuit an

open in the gate circuit is

more than likely the problem.

The low drain voltage would

be indicative of more drain

current flowing than normal.

Troubleshooting

In a zero-biased D-MOSFET or drain-feedback biased E-MOSFET an

open in the gate circuit is more difficult to detect. It may seem to be

biased properly with dc voltages but will fail to work properly when

an ac signal is applied.

Troubleshooting

With a voltage-divider biased E-MOSFET circuit faults are more

easily detected. With an open R1 there is no drain current, so the

VD = VDD. With an open R2 full VDD is applied to the gate turning

it on fully. VD = 0

Summary

JFETs are unipolar devices.

JFETs have three terminals: Source, Gate, and Drain.

JFETs have a high input resistance since the gate-

source junction is reverse biased.

Unwanted capacitance associated with FETs can be

dealt with by using dual gate type FETs.

IDSS for all FETs is the maximum amount of current

flow in the drain circuit when VGS is 0V.

All FETs must be biased for proper operation.

Midpoint is most common for use in amplifiers.

Summary

insulated from the channel.

D-MOSFETs can operate in both depletion and

enhancement modes. E-MOSFETs can only operate in

the enhancement mode.

E-MOSFETs have no physical channel. A channel is

induced with VGS greater than VGS(th).

E-MOSFETs have no IDSS parameter.

There are special MOSFET designs for high

power applications.

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