27 September 2010



Supply chain management  

Supply chain management (SCM) is the management of a network of interconnected businesses involved in the ultimate provision of product and service packages to the end customers. Supply Chain Management spans all movement and storage of raw materials, work-in-process inventory, and finished goods from point of origin to point of consumption (supply chain). 

SCM involves "design, planning, execution, control, and monitoring of supply chain activities with the objective of creating net value, building a competitive infrastructure, leveraging worldwide logistics, synchronizing supply with demand, and measuring performance globally."

Supply Chain
It addresses the following problems:  Distribution Network Configuration  Distribution Strategy  Trade-Offs in Logistical Activities  Information  Inventory Management  Cash-Flow Supply chain execution means managing and coordinating the movement of materials, information and funds across the supply chain. The flow is bi-directional.


Why Mid-Day Meal  

Food insecurity poses threat to the health, education, and overall development of children, a critical concern to governments in developing countries. MDM is an attempt of the governments to address this fundamental problem so that children get at least one nutritionally adequate meal every day.

Benefits of MDM
Higher attention spans,  Better concentration, and  Improved class performance.  An incentive to send children to school.  It encourages enrollment and  Reduces absenteeism and dropout rates. 

Supply Chain in MDM 


chain play an important role in mid day meal scheme and with the help of different supply chain strategy this scheme is being effectively implemented.

Responsibility Centres  

The SCM originates from the Government of India Ultimate responsibility for implementation is of the State Governments and Union Territory Admns.

Role of State Governments 

Ensure adequate budgetary provisions for their share of cooking cost  Establish systems for timely flow of funds

Constituents of the Mid Day Meal  


Food Grains (wheat/rice) (@100 grams per child per School Day) Construction of Infrastructure Transportation Cooking Distribution to the Children 


Food Grain is supplied free by the Central Government from the nearest FCI godown Transportation cost is borne by the Central Government subject to a ceiling (Rs. 100 or 75/-) Cooking Cost = Rs. 2/- per child. Assistance @ Rs. 1.80/1.50 is provided by Central Government. Remaining to be contributed by the state government. Construction of Kitchen-cum-store: Convergence with other development programmes like SGRY, BSUP, SJSRY, BRGF, SSA, ARWSP etc. Health Care: Convergence with NRHM of MoHFW

State Governments 

Provide their part of Budget. Formulate norms of expenditure under different components of the scheme. Formulate safety specifications for construction of kitchen-cum-store. Establish systems for continuous and uninterrupted flow of food-grains to the schools from FCI.

State Governments   

Ensure that all logistic and administrative arrangements are made for regular serving of wholesome, cooked mid day meal in every eligible school. Ensure logistic and administrative arrangements for timely construction of infrastructure and procurement of kitchen devices through funding made available under the scheme and by convergence with other development programmes. Formulate guidelines that promote and facilitate peoples¶ participation in the programme including criteria for identifying and associating genuine voluntary agencies and civil society organizations.


The scale and magnitude of the Scheme is huge and so is the robust and dynamic structure to manage it. There are Steering cum Monitoring Committees at the National, State, District/ Block and Local levels: 

Responsibility-National Committee 

To oversee the implementation of the programme It guides the various implementation agencies. Monitors programme implementation, assesses its impact, and takes corrective steps. Takes action on reports of independent monitoring/ evaluation agencies. Effects coordination and convergence among concerned departments, agencies (e.g. FCI) and schemes. Mobilizes community support and promotes public private partnership for the programme.

1. 2.


A Nodal Department in each state is responsible for implementation of the programme. The Implementation Cell ensures uninterrupted supply of cooked food at the MDM centres across the State. Develop and circulate detailed guidelines to overcome the obstacles in regular supply of cooked mid-day meal, like
1. 2.

Delay in flow of monetary assistance Make adequate budgetary provisions in anticipation of actual flow of Central assistance.

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9.

Delay in its actual transfer of funds from the Central government must not interrupt actual provision of cooked mid-day meal to children. The funds sanctioned by the Central Government should not be delayed by the State Finance Department Avoid delay on account of hierarchical level-wise releases from State to district to taluk/ block to gram Panchayat to School Electronic transfers through banking channels are being considered. Irregular supply of food grains or interruption in timely transportation to schools from FCI godown Ensure that FCI gives priority to the mid-day meal programme. Minimum one-month buffer stock of food-grains and cooking costs tio be in each school. Failure of the local implementation agency to adequately procure and stock up cooking ingredients. Absence of cook for any reason, etc.

Supply Chain of Official Sanctions etc.  


The Department of School Education and Literacy, MHRD makes district wise budgetary allocation of food grains, cooking costs, construction of kitchen-cum-store, cooking-cum-kitchen devices as approved by the MDM-PAB to the State Nodal Department and the FCI. MHRD conveys sanctions relating to MME allocations to the State Nodal Department. The State Nodal Department conveys district-wise allocations for the next financial year to all District Nodal Agencies or District Panchayats. The State Nodal Agency will ensure that the District Nodal Agencies have sub-allocated the monthly district allocation to the sub-district level which in turn will further allocate to each school.

Nodal Responsibility at the District and Block Level  

One nodal officer or agency at the district and block level (e.g. the District Collector, District/ Intermediate Panchayat, etc.) are assigned overall responsibility for effective implementation of the programme at the district/ block level. In States which have devolved the function of primary education on Panchayats, the Chief Executive Officer of District Panchayats or the Executive Officer of Block Panchayats is the Nodal Officer.

Responsibility of District Nodal Agency   

Inform each school of its monthly allocation of food grains and financial sanctions for construction of kitchen-cum-store, cooking costs, kitchen-cumcooking devices, etc. Identify the Transportation Agency to transport foodgrains from the FCI godown to school. Develop indicative menus using locally available and culturally acceptable food items.

Management at the Local Level  

Responsibility of implementation and day to day supervision of the programme is assigned to the Gram Panchayat/ Municipality or the Village Education Committee/ School Management & Development Committee or Parent-Teacher Association as the case may be. The VEC/SMDC/PTA is responsible for the programme to the Gram Panchayat/Municipality.

Responsibility for Cooking/Supply of Cooked Mid-Day Meal 

Local women¶s/mothers¶ Self-Help Group, Local Youth Club affiliated to the Nehru Yuva Kendra, A voluntary organization with requisite qualification By personnel engaged directly by the VEC/SMDC/PTA/Gram Panchayat/ Municipality. In urban areas where a centralized kitchen setup is possible for a cluster of schools, cooking, wherever appropriate, is undertaken in a centralized kitchen and cooked hot meal is then transported under hygienic conditions through a reliable transport system to various schools. There can be one or more such nodal kitchen(s) in an urban area, depending on the number of clusters which they serve.

Responsibility of FCI 

Ensure continuous availability of adequate food grains in its Depots and Distribution Centres; Lifting of food grains for any month/ quarter upto one month in advance Food-grains of best available quality [at least of Fair Average Quality (FAQ)] to be supplied by the FCI. Nodal Officer for each State to take care of various problems in supply of food grains. Keep samples of such food grains supplied by it for future verification and analysis.

Nodal Agency for transportation 

For transportation of food grains from nearest FCI depot to each Primary School there is a nodal agency like State Civil Supplies Corporation for lifting food grains from FCI godowns and delivering them to designated authority at the taluk/ block level.

Association of NGOs/VOs  

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Identified by the City level SMC for Municipal towns and District level SMC for others. The activities for which NGOs/VOs may be associated are:
Supply of cooked mid day meal Provision of resource support to the programme, e.g. Training & capacity building, Monitoring & evaluation and Research.

Community Support  


Gram Panchayats and Village Education Committee help the school management in ensuring efficient cooking, serving and cleaning operations. Teachers and community members ensure community feeling. Support of community members to inculcate Hygiene in Children Self-employment to poor women through SHGs. Scope for income generating activities such as growing & supplying vegetables, preparing condiments, etc.,


For preparation of Annual Work Plan & Budget (AWP&B) by States/UT Administrations there is a bottom-up approach, The annual plans contains details of Management Structure, Implementation processes, Monitoring systems, sociological break up of target groups infrastructure position, findings of evaluation studies, strategies to tackle problems, community participation, best practices and new initiatives etc., All the Savings to the State Government from the MDM Scheme shall not be diverted to any other activity but are used for betterment of the quality of MDM and Health of the children or infrastructure required under the scheme.  


The following link exists in the scheme for timely and efficient release of funds: CentraL State Zilla Panchayath Taluk Panchayath SDMC + Head Cook

Supply chain of food grain and cash Flow of money

Flow of food grain
FCI(govt of india)


State FCI


District level


Block level


Comparison of Mid-Day Meal Service Providers
Alternate service providers (NGOs) ‡ Accountable only for single activity ‡ Benefit from economies of scale in operations and professional support ‡ Have access to timely resources (government grants or own funds) ‡ Incentives from government exist ‡ Currently operating in pockets usually close to urban/industrial areas ‡ Do not have access to timely resources; have to manage somehow ‡ No performance incentives exist ‡ Spread across all areas of the state Regular service providers (teachers) ‡ Accountable for multiple activities ‡ No such benefit and no support

Primary Stakeholders

Secondary Stakeholders



Key findings    

The MDMS has had an impact on student enroll-ment, retention and attendance. Most of the parents and stu-dents interviewed approved of the taste and quality of the mid-day meal. They also felt that education quality, health, and nutrition of children had improved because of the MDMS, though it was difficult to measure this scientifically in the cur-rent study. On the whole, parents and students were satisfied with implementation of the MDMS. From the study it also appears that the state government is interested in increasing funding and food quality standards for the MDMS. Despite these positive signs, there were certain shortcomings that need to be addressed. Some of the key concerns that have policy implications are addressed below 

Delays in some schools in receiving budget and food grain allocations indicate that the budgeting, accounting, and monitoring system is poor and needs to be improved. Less than a quarter of the surveyed schools receive financial reimbursements on time. The quantity of food grain delivered to each school needs to be weighed to ensure that there are no leakages. Huge unspent conversion cost and unutilized food grain bal-ances are a major cause of concern. While the unspent con-version cost balances at the district level are increasing year after year, at the block level funds have been over utilized, leading to negative balances. Steps to ensure timely financial disbursements need to be taken. Schools lack basic infrastructure to implement the MDMS effectively. Almost all schools lack kitchens and food grain storerooms. Drinking water supply facilities in schools are more the exception than the rule. Funds need to be allo-cated to provide these facilities. Teachers appear to spend considerable time and energy on implementation of the MDMS. This affects the quality of teaching. The conversion costs are inadequate. There is a need for the state government to not only increase the cost per meal but also allocate grants for hiring local youth and self-help groups at the village level to decrease the burden of the MDMS on teachers. This will further enhance the quality of the MDMS. Even though Gram Panchayats have been entrusted with the responsibility of monitoring the implementation of the MDMS, in reality, GPs are playing a marginal role. The same is true for Parent Teacher Associations. Performance-based incentives and award competitions need to be insti-tuted to encourage and build capacities of these institutions so that they can play a vital role in the education and over-all development of their children. Even though many NGOs and private trusts have come forward to implement the MDMS in a few districts, their participation is limited in terms of area and coverage.They,together cover an insignificant number of schools. The pos-sibility of engaging more NGOs and civil society organiza-tions as alternative MDMS providers may also be explored.    

Effective use of supply chain in mid day meal



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Timely allotment of food grain to concern state so proper and full lifting of allotted food grain can be done by state or its agency. Timely allotment of fund for centre to state and for other agency for other activity so scheme should not affected on account of fund. use of effective logistic in transportation of food grain use of computerized supply chain software in scheme Timely flow of information from centre to all agency and from lower agency to highest authority use of NGO should encouraged in preparation and supply of mid day meal fuel supply should ensure at school level, use of LPG and other means should encouraged Proper monitoring of scheme so it can reduce the embezzlement cases

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