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BASIC MECHANICAL ENGG.

MANUFACTURING PROCESSES
WHAT IS MANUFACTURING?
 It is the process of converting raw material into finished
product by using machine.
 Classification of Manufacturing process:
1. Casting
2. Metal forming/Deformation
3. Machining/Metal Cutting Process.
4. Surface finishing
5. Powder metallurgy
6. Sheet metal working
7. Metal Joining process
8. Process effecting change in properties.
CASTING PROCESS
 In casting, Molten metal like cast iron, copper, aluminum is
poured into mould of desired shape.
 After that allowing the molten metal to cool and solidify in
the mould.
 Applications of casting:
 Cylinder blocks, piston, clutch housing, gear blank
 Jet engine blades, gear box housing
 Machine tool beds, frames, gears
 Water supply pipes, sanitary fittings
TYPES OF CASTING PROCESSES
 Sand casting – In this process castings are made
using sand mould.
SPECIAL TYPE OF CASTING PROCESS
 Permanent Mould Casting Process – there is metallic mould,
so we can use no. of times (25000 times)
 This is also known as gravity die casting
DIE CASTING PROCESS
 Making of casting by injecting the molten metal under high
pressure into mould.
 This is also known as pressure die casting
METAL FORMING PROCESS
 Component of desired shape and size obtained through the
plastic deformation of metal under action of externally
applied force.
 Forging Process:
 First metal is heated and then plastically deformed to
desired size under compressive force.
CLASSIFICATION OF FORGING BASED ON
TYPES OF DIES
 Open die forging process:  Closed Dies Forging
CLASSIFICATION BASED ON MODE OF
APPLICATION OF COMPRESSIVE FORCE
 Hand forging:
DROP FORGING
 It is the process of deforming the hot material into desired
shape by raising the die with the help of pneumatic cylinder
and allowing it to fall so as to impart blow on material
PRESS FORGING
 It is the process of deforming the hot material into desired
shape by raising the die with the help of pneumatic cylinder
and allowing it to fall so as to impart blow on material
UPSET FORGING
 Upset forging is operated in horizontal direction
SHEET METAL WORKING (PRESS WORKING)
 Process of manufacturing the components from the sheet
metal.
 Thickness of the sheet metal ranging from 0.1 mm to about
6-8 mm.
 Types of sheet metal working:
 Sheet metal cutting process
 Sheet metal forming process
SHEET METAL CUTTING PROCESS
 Piercing : Producing a hole of any desired shape in a sheet
metal by using punch and die.

 Punching : Producing a circular hole in a sheet metal by


using punch and die.
SHEET METAL CUTTING PROCESS
 Blanking: operation of cutting out a piece of the required
shape from the sheet metal.

 Perforating: operation of producing a number of evenly


spaced holes in a metal sheet.
SHEET METAL CUTTING PROCESS
 Slitting: operation of cutting sheet metal in straight line
along the length.

 Lancing: operation of cutting a part of sheet metal through


some portion of its length and then bending the cut portion
SHEET METAL CUTTING PROCESS
 Notching: operation of removal of small part of metal sheet
of desired shape from the edge of metal sheet.
SHEET METAL FORMING PROCESS
 Drawing: process of forming a flat metal sheet into 3
dimensional hollow shape by means of punch that causes
the metal to flow into the die cavity.
SHEET METAL FORMING PROCESS
 Deep Drawing: If the depth of the formed cup exceeds the
diameter of formed cup.
SHEET METAL FORMING PROCESS
 Bending: It is the process by which a straight length metal
sheet is transformed into curved length

 U- Bending: It is the process by which a straight length metal sheet is


transformed into U shape.
SHEET METAL FORMING PROCESS
 Curling: an edge of a circular cross section is formed along
the sheet or at the end of tube.
SHEET METAL FORMING PROCESS
 Forming: Process of shaping a flat metal sheet into a
surface of desired profile.
SHEET METAL FORMING PROCESS
 Coining: Process of cold squeezing of metal in which aal the
surfaces are confined within the set of dies.

 Embossing: Process of producing the depressed or raised


impression of letters, figures, or designs on metal sheet.
SHEET METAL FORMING PROCESS
 Wire Drawing: It is cold working process of producing the wire
from the rod through the successive reduction of the diameter.
METAL JOINING PROCESS
 Welding: process of joining two metallic parts together by
heating them to a plastic state or semi molten state, with
or without application of pressure and with or without a
filler material.
 Types of welding Process:
 Pressure welding (Plastic welding)
 Non-pressure welding (Fusion welding)
PRESSURE WELDING PROCESS
 Forge Welding:  Electrical resistance Welding:
PRESSURE WELDING PROCESS
 Seam Welding:
NON - PRESSURE WELDING PROCESS
 Electric arc Welding:
TYPES OF ELECTRIC ARC WELDING
 Shielded Metal Arc Welding (SMAW)
TYPES OF ELECTRIC ARC WELDING
 Tungsten Inert Gas Welding (TIG Welding)
TYPES OF ELECTRIC ARC WELDING
 Metal Inert Gas Welding (MIG Welding)
TYPES OF ELECTRIC ARC WELDING
 Gas Welding
BRAZING
 Brazing: It is the process of joining 2 workpiece, made of
similar or dissimilar materials by heating them to a
specified temperature above 450° C but below melting
temp. of workpiece.
SOLDERING
 Soldering: It is the process of joining 2 workpiece, made of
similar or dissimilar materials by heating them to a
specified temperature below 450° C.