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Beer is an alcoholic drink brewed mainly from malted
barley, hops, yeast and water although other sources of
fermentable carbohydrate (eg. maize, wheat, rice) and
other natural ingredients may be added to create
different styles and flavors.
“An alcoholic beverage made by brewing and
fermentation from cereals, usually malted barley, and
flavoured with hops and the like for a slightly bitter
Beer in ancient world
 4300 B.C.- Babylonian clay tablets includes recipes for
making beer.
 There is an evidence that brewing process was established
in Babylon in 6000 B.C.
 Historians believe that prehistoric man made beer before
learning to make bread.
 Beer has been referred to as “liquid bread”.
 Egyptian improves upon the process and Roman started
from the commercial purposes.
 The Normans carried the process to England when they
conquered it.
 The term beer is came from the word “barley”.
Beer in medieval world
Beer in the medieval world
 Monks built the first breweries, and were pioneers of the hotel;
offering shelter, food, and drink to traveling pilgrims
 Beer was generally brewed by women
 They were cooks, and beer was considered “food-drink”
 Beer was preferred over water, since it was often more sanitary
 Beer also provided much needed calories to the generally low-
calorie diets of the day
 Though popular, beer was disdained by science because Ancient
Greek physicians had no experience with beer
 The use of hops in beer was written about in 822, but perfected
in Germany in the 13th century
 Until then it was difficult to establish the right proportion of
 Hops allowed the beer to be exported
Beer in early modern Europe
Beer in early modern Europe
 By the 15th century, almost half of the cargo taken across the
North sea and Baltic sea were barrels of beer
 Beer making changed from a family activity to an artisan activity
 Ale and beer became synonymous in the 16th century
 William Shakespeare's father was an Ale Connor
 Sat on ale in leather breeches to test for sugar
 In the 16th century, The Dean of St Pauls invented the beer
 Also in the 16th century, Benjamin Franklin recorded the daily
consumption in a London printing house to be five pints per
 Lager is discovered after beer stored in cool caverns
Beer in the Industrial Revolution
Beer in the Industrial Revolution
 The advent of the steam engine allowed for the
industrialization of beer
 Prior to the late 1700’s, malt was dried with fires made from
wood charcoal, straw, or coke
 They were not able to shield the malt from smoke, giving the
malt a smoky flavour
 Wood smoked malt was supposedly horrible
 Using a hydrometer, brewers could calculate the yield from
different malts
 Pale malts gave the highest output, and coloured malts were
added in small amounts to achieve the correct colour
 The use of a drum roaster allowed for the creation of very
dark, roasted malts, giving rise to stouts
Ingredients of Beer
 Mainly the barley (Botanical
name- Hordium Vulgare) is
used but can be produced from
wheat, rice combinations of
 The small amount grain can be
added along with the barley is
term as “ADJUNCTS”.
 Adjunct can be added up to 35%
but higher the adjunct, lower
cost, body and flavor.
 These are cone or flower, obtained from perennial
plant called Hop vine. 20 meters in height, last for
around for 20 years.
 Botanical name is “Humulus Lupulus” derived from
the Roman word Lupus Sallctarius which means that
“sheep along wolf”.
 Female species is used for beer making because it
contain a yellow thick substance called “Lupulin”
which contain alpha acid called “Humulones” which
contributes to flavors, antiseptic, and preservatives.
 Cone is called STROBLLE and
petals are called BRACTS.
Cones are light green in color
having 60-80% moisture
 They are dehydrated in
chamber called “OAST
 Best hops are Bavarian hops
comes from Germany and
Reasons why do they use Hops?
 Flavor
 Preservatives
 Antiseptic
 Aroma
 Clarifying agents
 Microorganism cause
the fermentation, only
seen when massed
 Discovered by Anton
Van Loeuwenhoeck in
 In 1857 Louise Pasteur
explain the function of
yeast in detail.
What qualities should my yeast
 Rapid initiation of fermentation
 High fermentation efficiency
 High ethanol tolerance
 Desired flavored characteristics
 High genetic stability
 Range of alcohol product
 The body of beer is consist of 90% of water. The
quality and mineral content affect the character of
 Water contain six main salts namely bicarbonate,
sodium, chloride, calcium, magnesium and sulphate.
 High level of carbonate will produce acidic mash,
which will reduce the extraction of sugar from malts.
 Too much sulphar will give bitterness to brew.
 Magnesium is a essential ingredients for yeasts.
 To speed up the fermentation.
 To reduce the bitterness.
 To give color in the form of caramel.
 To cause secondary fermentation.
The beer making process
 Mashing
 Brewing
 Fermenting
 Lagering
 Packaging
 Barley malt is ground and hot water is added.
 Diastase in the malt convert starch into sugar. Corn or
rice is added for flavor and stability.
 The mashed then is cooked at a low temperature for up
to 6 hrs to extract as much sugar as much possible
form the grain.
 The resulting sweet liquid called “wort” is strained for
 The wort is transferred to brew kettle, where it is
boiled wit hops for approximately 2hrs to achieve
desired flavor and color.
 The hops are removed and the flavored wort is
strained, chilled, and pumped into fermentation tank.
 The decision to make it an ale or lager is made.
Brewing process
 Mashing
 The temperature of a water/starch mixture (usually malted barley) is raised to
activate enzymes which break down the starch into fermentable sugars
 Sparging
 The mash is rinsed through a porous barrier called a lauter-tun that allows the
fermentable liquid to pass, but not the grain.
 This liquid is called the wort
 Boiling
 The wort is then boiled to steralize it, and remove the water so that only the sugars
and other components remain.
 Hops are added at this stage
 The longer the hops boil, the more bitterness they add, but the less flavour they add
 Fermentation
 The boiled wort is cooled and put into a fermentation vessel along with yeast. The
mixture is allowed to ferment anywhere from a week to a month. Yeast and sediment
settle, and the resultant clear liquid is the beer.
 Packaging
 Beer is put into the vessel in which it will be served.
 It can be carbonated artificially
 It can also be carbonated naturally by adding small amounts of fresh wort, sugar,
and/or yeast
 The addition of yeast to the wort converts sugar into
alcohol and carbon dioxide.
 Fermentation time is 1-2 weeks or more.
 Carbon dioxide is trapped in the beer by fermenting
the wort under pressure.
 Ales – top fermented; yeast stay on top.
 Lagers – bottom fermented; yeast falls to bottom.
 Lagering is the storage and conditioning stage.
 Matures and ripens the beer, mellowing its flavor.
 After storage, the beer is pasteurize of filtered, and
then kegged, bottled or can.
 Beer is put into the vessel in which it will be served.
 It can be carbonated artificially
 It can also be carbonated naturally by adding small
amounts of fresh wort, sugar, and/or yeast
Production Process
 Steeping
 Malting
 Germination
 Kilning
 Sieving
 Grinding
 Extraction of
 Sugar
 Infusion
 Decoction
 The grains are soaked in huge tank of water (6 tons of
barley and 6800 liters of water) at 10 ̊̊̊C for 2 to 3 day.

 Some producer change water in between to provide

dry resting period and grain gets the air also.
 Grains are taken to malt room, which is very hard,
grains are spread to depth of 15-30 cm to allow grain
breath while sprouting.

 Grains are constantly stirred for uniform breathing

and to prevent sprout getting entwined.

 This process goes of for 6-15 days at 12-21 ̊̊̊C

 During this process the insoluble starch gets converted
to maltose and dextrin and rootlets, known as “malt
culms” appears.

 CYSTASE- convert the insoluble starch to soluble


 DIASTASE- convert the soluble starch to sugar.

 Grain is referred as “Green Malt”

 In this process the grains are spread on a perforated,
tilted floor with a furnace underneath. Grain are dried
and temperature maintained is 49 ̊̊̊C. the extant to
which grain should heated is decided by the type of
beer produced.

 Types of Malts:
 Pale malt- for light ale 65 ̊̊̊C
 Crystal malt- for pale ale 85 ̊̊̊C
 Chocolate malt- for dark beer 225 ̊̊̊C
 SIEVING- it is done to remove malts culms which sold
as cattle feed.

 GRINDING- the grains are roughly broken which are

known as GRIST through roller mill.
Extraction of Sugar
 INFUSION- huge tank is called “Mush Tun”
 Grist added with water
 The mixture is heated up to 63 ̊̊̊C for 2 hours.
 The result in the formation of hot sweet liquid called
 Wort is filtered through finely slotted plate.
 DECOCTION- tanks are called “Lateur Tun”
 The grist is heated up to 70 ̊̊̊C
 Some of wash is taken out and cooled then added back to
 This is carried out for 4 to 5 times and takes out 4 to 5 hours.
 From the under back of wort is pumped into a vessel
called “brew kettle” which is pressurized.

 In this vessel hops (191-907 gms/ litres, depending

upon the types of beer) and sugar is added.

 The mixture is boiled for 2hrs. This will sterilized

Removal of Hops
 HOP BACK- the wort along with hops is transferred to
vessel called hop back, which is having slotted plates
forming a filter bed. The content is allowed to for
40mins. To allow hops to make filter bed.

 HOP EXTRACTOR- this is machine, which rotates,

due to centrifugal force the hops are thrown to sides of
wall inside the tank. Then hops are taken out.
 Fermentation is a process which convert the sugar into
alcohol and CO2.

 Co2 is stored in different tanks.

 This process takes 7-14 days.

 During the fermentation the thick layer of yeast is

formed which protect the beer.
 Lagering takes place in stainless tank at 0 degree
 Beer is matured for few weeks to months.
 Lagering matures beer and allow its flavor.
 FINNING- is the process of clarification in which
protein like egg shell, ox blood, gall bladder of
sturgeon fish is added.
 Carbonation- addition of Carbon Dioxide
 Bottling /Canning
 In this process the beer is heated up to 60-66 ̊̊̊C for
less than 20mins, which can kill bacteria and
remaining yeast which may allow further
How to stored beer?
 Larger beer should be stored in dark place at 4-5 ̊̊̊C
and bottled should be kept in horizontal position.

 Ale beer is stored at 10-12 ̊̊̊C

 Aroma
 Can come from the malt, strength of the hops, alcohol, esters, or other
 Flavor
 From the type and amount of malt used, flavor of the yeast, and the
bitterness of the hops
 Appearance
 Color, clarity, nature of the head
 Mouth feel
 The feel of beer in the mouth, both from the thickness of the beer and
from carbonation. Carbonation can cause the beer to seem creamy or
 Strength
 Original gravity – the amount of fermentable material (density of the
 Final gravity – the density of the beer after fermentation
 In dry beer, more sugar is converted to alcohol during fermentation,
non-dry beer is thus sweeter
 Alcohol by volume
Type of Beer
 Bottom Fermenting

 Top Fermenting
Bottom Fermenting Beer
Larger – the generic name for any bottom fermenting
 Lager came from the German word “LAGERN” (to
store) and applied to bottom fermenting beer.
 Lager traditionally stored in cellars for completion of
 They are bright gold to yellow in color with a light to
medium body and are well carbonated.
Top fermenting Beer
 Ale- originally produced in Britain with 4% AV. It has darker
color than larger beer with more hops, aroma with less
carbonation. Ale is usually bitter to taste with slight tanginess. In
Britain it is referred as “Bitter”
 Cream Ale- a sweetish, sooth golden ale from US. Beer which
made by blending of little with larger amount of lager beer.
 Alt- German counter part of ale. Alt traditional with bitter taste
of old time, golden color with 4.5% AV from Northern Germany.
 Porter- a intense deep color smoky or fruity bouquet and
persistent bitterness , mild hops and alcohol content.
 Stout- a strong version of a stout dark beer almost black, with
high alcohol content.