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Asso Prof Dr G M Kibria


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Learning objectives
At the end of this session you will be able to:
• list the male reproductive organs
• explain the testis as primary sex organ in male
• describe the coverings of testis: tunica vaginalis & albuginea
• describe gross structure of testis (mediastinum testis, lobule,
seminiferous tubule, rete testis, efferent ductules)
• describe the gross anatomy of epididymis (parts, formation,
• describe the gross anatomy of ductus deferens, its course and
important relationships
• describe the gross anatomy of seminal vesicle, ejaculatory duct
• describe the gross anatomy of prostate, its coverings and lobes,
clinical importance
• describe the gross anatomy of penis
• describe the blood supply of male reproductive organs
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Paired organs Glands (accessory sex organs)
• Testis • Prostate (single)
• Epididymis • Seminal vesicle (paired)
• Ductus deferens • Bulbourethral gland
• Ejaculatory duct (paired)
Single organs
• Urethra
• Penis

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TESTIS: the primary sex organ in male
• Lies in scrotum
• (TDF of) Y chromosome determines the development of
• Testis induce the development of other (secondary) sex
organs, hence the sex organs other than testis are
secondary organs
• Testes originally develop in high posterior abdominal wall
and later descend into the scrotum of the perineum
• During descent the testes carry their vessels, lymphatics, &
nerves with them
• Testis is ellipsoid-shaped: upper & lower poles, anterior &
posterior borders, lateral & medial surfaces
• The sides & anterior aspect of testis are completely covered
by a closed sac of peritoneum (tunica vaginalis, its visceral
& parietal layers)
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Descent of testis

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Dartos muscle in
superficial fascia

Colles fascia

External spermatic fascia

Cremasteric fascia
Internal spermatic fascia

Tunica vaginalis

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Structure of the testis
• Tunica albuginea is the thick connective Seminiferous
tubules in lobule
tissue capsule surrounding the testis, lies
deep to tunica vaginalis
• Mediastinum testis is a thick vertical fibrous
septum of CT, it projects inward from the
capsule into the posterior aspect of testis
• Testis is divided into 250 (+) lobules by the
connective tissue septa extending from the
capsule up to the mediastinum testis Rete testis in
• Seminiferous tubules are highly coiled mediastinum
structures present in the lobules (1-4 in each
lobule), spermatozoa are produced by these
tubules Tunica
• Ends of each seminiferous tubule are straight albuginea
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• Rete testis is the network of channels in the
mediastinum testis, & are connected with the
ends of seminiferous tubules
• Rete testis are the collecting chamber for the
• Efferent ductules (10-12 from each testis)
originate from the upper end of the rete
testis, penetrate through capsule & connect
with the epididymis

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• A single long coiled duct &
courses along the Parts od Epididymis
posterolateral side of testis
• Head of the epididymis: the
efferent ductules (12-20) are Body
coiled & form this enlarged
• Efferent ductules unit to Tail
form one duct & forms the
coiled mass, body of the
•During passage through the
epididymis, spermatozoa
• At the lower pole of the
acquire the ability to move
testis, the duct forms the tail
of epididymis & then •Epididymis also stores
continues as the ductus spermatozoa until ejaculation
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iliac artery

• Long muscular duct, Ductus

ascends(in the spermatic
cord) & passes through the
inguinal canal Inferior
• Enters the abdominal epigastric art.
cavity passing through the Inguinal
deep inguinal ring & canal
bending medially around Spermatic
the inferior epigastric cord
artery Ductus deferens
• Ductus deferens always lies in Epididymis

extraperitoneal space
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Urinary bladder:
Ductus deferens (cont’d) Posterior view D. deferens

• Enters the pelvic cavity crossing

the external iliac vessels at the
pelvic inlet, descends medially on ureter

the pelvic wall & crosses the

ureter posterior to the bladder Seminal
• At the base of the bladder, near
to the midline, it joins the duct of
seminal vesicle to form the
ejaculatory duct
• Ejaculatory duct penetrates
through prostate & open in
prostatic part of urethra on either
side of the midline Ejaculatory
Lateral view
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• Ductus deferens transports
spermatozoa from epididymis to
ejaculatory duct & then to the
• Because of thick smooth muscle-
wall, it can be easily palpated in
the spermatic cord between the
testis & superficial inguinal ring
• It can be surgically dissected by
incising through skin &
superficial fascia (vasectomy)
• Vasectomy : A method of male
contraception, when done
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• List the different paired & single male reproductive organs.
• What are the layers of the scrotum?
• Why testis is the primary reproductive organ in male?
• What are the coverings of testis?
• How the lobules are formed in the testis?
• What is seminiferous tubule? What is its function?
• What are the parts of epididymis? How are they formed?
• Describe the course of ductus deferens.
• How the spermatic cord is formed? how can it be palpated?
• What is vasectomy?
• Describe the position & relation of the seminal vesicle.
• Trace the pathway for the sperm from testis up to external
urethral opening.

• An accessory gland of male Ductus deferens
reproductive system
• Blind-ended tubular
outgrowth from ductus
• The tube is coiled with
numerous pocket-like
outgrowths & is
encapsulated by connective Seminal vesicle
tissue to form an elongate
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• Seminal vesicle lies lateral
to the ductus deferens at
the base of bladder as it
is situated between the
bladder & rectum
• Its duct unite the ductus
deferens to form the
ejaculatory duct
• Its secretion contribute
significantly to the
volume of semen

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PROSTATE: a fibro-musculo-glandular organ
• Inverted rounded cone-shaped,
3 cm long, with the larger base
upward & continuous with neck
of bladder (smooth muscles are
• Apex of prostate lies on the
upper surface of the urogenital Pubic
diaphragm symphysis

• Prostate lies inferior to the

bladder, posterior to the pubic Rectum
symphysis (with the retropubic
fat in between), & anterior to Prostate
the rectum (with the thick
rectovesical septum in between)
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• Prostate surrounds the Levator
prostatic part of the ani
• Its inferolateral surfaces
are in contact with the
levator ani muscles that
together cradle the
prostate between them
• By rectal (PR) examination
the prostate can be
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Prostate is a complex of 30-40 individual glands
• Prostate develops as 30-40 vein
individual tubulo-alveolar glands
from the urethral epithelium into
the urethral wall
• Collectively, these glands enlarge
the wall of the urethra into what
is known as the prostate

•The individual glands retain their own ducts, which

empty independently into the prostatic sinus of the
•Secrete fibrinolysin (liquefies seminal fluid),citric acid

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Structure of the prostate (snell)

• Prostate is surrounded by a fibrous capsule

• Outside the capsule is a fibrous sheath (false capsule),
which is a part of pelvic fascia
• Prostatic venous plexus lies internal to the fibrous sheath
but external to the capsule
• Two ejaculatory ducts pierce the upper part of its
posterior surface to open into the urethra at the lateral
margins of prostatic utricle
False capsule
• Prostatic urethra & two
ejaculatory ducts
incompletely divide
the prostate into 5 lobes
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Five lobes of the prostate
Median, posterior, anterior & 2 lateral lobes (snell)
• Median (middle) lobe is rich in
glands, situated between the
urethra & two ejaculatory ducts,
its upper surface is related to the
trigone of the bladder, benign
growth of this lobe is common
causing obstruction of urine flow,
also increasing the frequency of Anterior
• Posterior lobe is situated behind Ejaculatory duct
the urethra & below the Lateral lobes are not shown in the figure
ejaculatory ducts, contains
glandular tissue
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Enlargement of median lobe: common in old age

Produces symptoms:

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Lobes of prostate (cont’d)
• Right & left lateral lobes lie
on either side of the Anterior lobe
urethra & contains many
• Anterior lobe (isthmus or
commissure of prostate)
lies in front of the urethra
& contains little, if any,
glandular tissue Ejaculatory
Lateral lobe

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Two zones of the prostate
for clinical importance
• Clinically prostate is
divided into peripheral &
central zones
• Central zone is
comparable to the
median lobe, clinically is
the zone of benign growth • Peripheral zone (lateral
with increasing of age in lobes & posterior lobe) is the
most men & by PR cancer zone & PR examination
examination this benign indicates rock hard & irregular
growth feels “bulky” feeling in prostatic cancer
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Regarding the ductus deferens:
A. It is a muscular tube
B. It pass through the inguinal canal
C. It is closely associated with inferior epigastric artery
D. It lies lateral to the seminal vesicle
E. It unite with duct of seminal vesicle to form the ejaculatory
Regarding the prostate:
A. It lies posterior to pubic symphysis.
B. Benign growth occurs in its peripheral zone.
C. It can be palpated by per rectal examination.
D. It contains smooth muscle.
E. Prostatic venous plexus lies deep to its capsule.
• What are the structural tissues in the prostate?
• What are the capsules of the prostate? Where
does the prostatic venous plexus lie?
• What are the lobes of prostate?
• Differentiate the benign-growth zone & cancer
zone in the prostate.
• How prostate can be palpated?
Bulbourethral gland
• Small pea-shaped mucous
glands on either side of the
membranous urethra in deep
perineal pouch
• Ducts pass inferiorly through
the perineal membrane &
open in the bulb of the
spongy urethra
• Secretion contributes to urethral gland
lubrication of urethra & the
pre-ejaculatory emission from
the penis
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• Male organ for copulation (not
primary sex organ) PENIS
• Composed mainly of three Fundiform ligament
erectile tissues Suspensory ligament
– Two corpora cavernosa
– Single corpus spongiosum:
urethra passes through it
• Root of the penis (attached
part of penis): fixed to the
perineal membrane & pubic
arch (within superficial
perineal pouch)
– Bulb of penis, anchored to --Two crura of penis,
perineal membrane, it is anchored to the pubic arch,
the proximal & enlarged & are the proximal part of
part of corpus spongiosum corpora cavernosa
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• Free part of penis is the body of the penis
• Corpus spongiosum expands to form the head of
penis (or glans penis) over the distal ends of
corpora cavernosa
• The spongy urethra is dilated in the bulb of the
• Navicular fossa is the dilated part of urethra in the
glans penis

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BLOOD SUPPLY Testicular artery
Pampiniform plexus
• Testicular artery, branch of
abdominal aorta.
• Veins form the pampiniform
venous phlexus around the
testicular artery
(thermoregulatory system) in the Spermatic
spermatic cord, superiorly the
plexus form testicular vein, right
one opens in inferior vena cava,
left one in left renal vein

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Ductus deferens
• Artery: superior/inferior vesicular artery, testicular artery
• Veins drain into testicular vein, vesical/prostatic plexus
• Artery: inferior vesical, internal pudendal , middle rectal
• Prostatic venous plexus drain into internal iliac vein
• Supplied by the branches of internal pudendal artery
• Veins drain into prostatic venous plexus & superficial
external pudendal vein

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• What are the parts of penis?
• What are the erectile tissues of the penis?
• What are the dilated parts of the male urethra?
• What is pampiniform plexus of vein? What is its


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