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12 DYNAMICS

Ferdinand P. Beer

E. Russell Johnston, Jr.

Phillip J. Cornwell Kinetics of Particles:

Lecture Notes:

Newton’s Second Law

Brian P. Self

California Polytechnic State University

Edition

Tenth

Vector Mechanics for Engineers: Dynamics

Contents

Introduction Angular Momentum of a Particle

Newton’s Second Law of Equations of Motion in Radial &

Motion Transverse Components

Linear Momentum of a Particle Conservation of Angular Momentum

Systems of Units Newton’s Law of Gravitation

Equations of Motion Sample Problem 12.7

Dynamic Equilibrium Sample Problem 12.8

Sample Problem 12.1 Trajectory of a Particle Under a

Sample Problem 12.3 Central Force

Sample Problem 12.4 Application to Space Mechanics

Sample Problem 12.5 Sample Problem 12.9

Sample Problem 12.6 Kepler’s Laws of Planetary Motion

Edition

Tenth

Vector Mechanics for Engineers: Dynamics

Kinetics of Particles

High swing velocities can

We must analyze all of the forces

result in large forces on a

acting on the wheelchair in order

swing chain or rope, causing

to design a good ramp

it to break.

Edition

Tenth

Vector Mechanics for Engineers: Dynamics

Introduction

F ma

• Newton’s Second Law of Motion

zero, the particle will have an acceleration

proportional to the magnitude of resultant

and in the direction of the resultant.

frame of reference, i.e., one that is not accelerating or rotating.

• This form of the equation is for a constant mass system

Edition

Tenth

Vector Mechanics for Engineers: Dynamics

Linear Momentum of a Particle

• Replacing the acceleration by the derivative of the velocity

yields

dv

F m

dt

d dL

m v

dt dt

L linear momentum of the particle

If the resultant force on a particle is zero, the linear momentum

of the particle remains constant in both magnitude and direction.

© 2013 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. 12 - 5

Edition

Tenth

Vector Mechanics for Engineers: Dynamics

Systems of Units

• Of the units for the four primary dimensions (force,

mass, length, and time), three may be chosen arbitrarily.

The fourth must be compatible with Newton’s 2nd Law.

the units of length (m), mass (kg), and time (second).

The unit of force is derived,

m kg m

1 N 1 kg 1 2 1 2

s s

(lb), length (m), and time (second). The unit of mass is

derived,

1lb 1lb lb s 2

1lbm 2

1slug 2

1

32.2 ft s 1ft s ft

Edition

Tenth

Vector Mechanics for Engineers: Dynamics

Equations of Motion

• Newton’s second law F ma

• Can use scalar component equations, e.g., for

rectangular components,

Fx i Fy j Fz k ma x i a y j a z k

Fx max Fy ma y Fz maz

Fx mx Fy my Fz mz

Edition

Tenth

Vector Mechanics for Engineers: Dynamics

Dynamic Equilibrium

• Alternate expression of Newton’s second law,

F m a 0

ma inertial vector

• With the inclusion of the inertial vector, the system

of forces acting on the particle is equivalent to

zero. The particle is in dynamic equilibrium.

• Methods developed for particles in static

equilibrium may be applied, e.g., coplanar forces

may be represented with a closed vector polygon.

• Inertia vectors are often called inertial forces as

they measure the resistance that particles offer to

changes in motion, i.e., changes in speed or

direction.

• Inertial forces may be conceptually useful but are

not like the contact and gravitational forces found

in statics.

© 2013 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. 12 - 8

Edition

Tenth

Vector Mechanics for Engineers: Dynamics

Free Body Diagrams and Kinetic Diagrams

The free body diagram is the same as you have done in statics; we

will add the kinetic diagram in our dynamic analysis.

1. Isolate the body of interest (free body)

2. Draw your axis system (e.g., Cartesian, polar, path)

3. Add in applied forces (e.g., weight, 225 lb pulling force)

4. Replace supports with forces (e.g., normal force)

5. Draw appropriate dimensions (usually angles for particles)

x y

225 N

25o

Ff

N

mg

© 2013 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. 12 - 9

Edition

Tenth

Vector Mechanics for Engineers: Dynamics

Free Body Diagrams and Kinetic Diagrams

Put the inertial terms for the body of interest on the kinetic diagram.

1. Isolate the body of interest (free body)

2. Draw in the mass times acceleration of the particle; if unknown,

do this in the positive direction according to your chosen axes

x y may

225 N

max

25o

Ff

N

mg

F ma

© 2013 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. 12 - 10

Edition

Tenth

Vector Mechanics for Engineers: Dynamics

Free Body Diagrams and Kinetic Diagrams

Draw the FBD and KD for block A (note that the

massless, frictionless pulleys are attached to block A

and should be included in the system).

Edition

Tenth

Vector Mechanics for Engineers: Dynamics

Free Body Diagrams and Kinetic Diagrams

1. Isolate body

2. Axes

3. Applied forces

4. Replace supports with forces

5. Dimensions (already drawn)

6. Kinetic diagram

y

T T NB

T

T may = 0

x

T

mg

Ff-B

= max

N1 Ff-1

© 2013 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. 2 - 12

Edition

Tenth

Vector Mechanics for Engineers: Dynamics

Free Body Diagrams and Kinetic Diagrams

there is friction acting between the rod and collar,

motion is in the vertical plane, and q is increasing

Edition

Tenth

Vector Mechanics for Engineers: Dynamics

Free Body Diagrams and Kinetic Diagrams

1. Isolate body

2. Axes

3. Applied forces

4. Replace supports with forces

5. Dimensions

6. Kinetic diagram

eq maq

er

mar

q

q

=

Ff

mg

N

© 2013 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. 2 - 14

Edition

Tenth

Vector Mechanics for Engineers: Dynamics

Sample Problem 12.1

SOLUTION:

• Resolve the equation of motion for the

block into two rectangular component

equations.

P and the normal reaction N from the

plane. The two equations may be

solved for these unknowns.

plane. Find the magnitude of the force

P required to give the block an

acceleration of 10 ft/s2 to the right. The

coefficient of kinetic friction between

the block and plane is mk 0.25.

Edition

Tenth

Vector Mechanics for Engineers: Dynamics

Sample Problem 12.1

SOLUTION:

• Resolve the equation of motion for the block

into two rectangular component equations.

Fx ma :

y

P cos 30 0.25N 6.21lb s 2 ft 10 ft s 2

62.1lb

O

x Fy 0 :

W 200 lb N P sin 30 200 lb 0

m

g 32.2 ft s 2 • Unknowns consist of the applied force P and

the normal reaction N from the plane. The two

lb s 2

6.21 equations may be solved for these unknowns.

ft

N P sin 30 200 lb

F mk N

P cos 30 0.25P sin 30 200 lb 62.1lb

0.25N

P 151lb

Edition

Tenth

Vector Mechanics for Engineers: Dynamics

Sample Problem 12.3

SOLUTION:

• Write the kinematic relationships for the

dependent motions and accelerations of

the blocks.

• Write the equations of motion for the

blocks and pulley.

• Combine the kinematic relationships

with the equations of motion to solve for

the accelerations and cord tension.

The two blocks shown start from rest.

The horizontal plane and the pulley are

frictionless, and the pulley is assumed

to be of negligible mass. Determine

the acceleration of each block and the

tension in the cord.

Edition

Tenth

Vector Mechanics for Engineers: Dynamics

Sample Problem 12.3

SOLUTION:

• Write the kinematic relationships for the dependent

O motions and accelerations of the blocks.

x

y B 12 x A a B 12 a A

y

• Write equations of motion for blocks and pulley.

Fx m Aa A :

T1 100 kg a A

Fy mB aB :

mB g T2 mB a B

300 kg 9.81m s 2 T2 300 kg a B

T2 2940N - 300 kg a B

Fy mC aC 0 :

T2 2T1 0

© 2013 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. 12 - 18

Edition

Tenth

Vector Mechanics for Engineers: Dynamics

Sample Problem 12.3

• Combine kinematic relationships with equations of

motion to solve for accelerations and cord tension.

O

x y B 12 x A a B 12 a A

y T1 100 kg a A

T2 2940N - 300 kg a B

2940N - 300 kg 12 a A

T2 2T1 0

2940 N 150 kg a A 2100 kg a A 0

a A 8.40 m s 2

a B 12 a A 4.20 m s 2

T1 100 kg a A 840 N

T2 2T1 1680 N

© 2013 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. 12 - 19

Edition

Tenth

Vector Mechanics for Engineers: Dynamics

Sample Problem 12.4

SOLUTION:

• The block is constrained to slide down

the wedge. Therefore, their motions are

dependent. Express the acceleration of

block as the acceleration of wedge plus

the acceleration of the block relative to

the wedge.

wedge and block.

The 12-lb block B starts from rest and

slides on the 30-lb wedge A, which is • Solve for the accelerations.

supported by a horizontal surface.

Neglecting friction, determine (a) the

acceleration of the wedge, and (b) the

acceleration of the block relative to the

wedge.

Edition

Tenth

Vector Mechanics for Engineers: Dynamics

Sample Problem 12.4

SOLUTION:

• The block is constrained to slide down the

wedge. Therefore, their motions are dependent.

aB a A aB A

• Write equations of motion for wedge and block.

Fx m Aa A :

y N1 sin 30 m A a A

0.5 N1 W A g a A

Fx mB a x mB a A cos 30 aB A :

WB sin 30 WB g a A cos 30 a B

x

A

a B A a A cos 30 g sin 30

Fy mB a y mB a A sin 30 :

N1 WB cos 30 WB g a A sin 30

© 2013 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. 12 - 21

Edition

Tenth

Vector Mechanics for Engineers: Dynamics

Sample Problem 12.4

• Solve for the accelerations.

0.5 N1 W A g a A

2W A g a A WB cos 30 WB g a A sin 30

gWB cos 30

aA

2W A WB sin 30

aA

32.2 ft s 2 12 lb cos 30

230 lb 12 lb sin 30

a A 5.07 ft s 2

aB A

5.07 ft s 2 cos 30 32.2 ft s 2 sin 30

aB A 20.5 ft s 2

Edition

Tenth

Vector Mechanics for Engineers: Dynamics

Group Problem Solving

SOLUTION:

• Write the kinematic relationships for the

dependent motions and accelerations of

the blocks.

• Draw the FBD and KD for each block

• Write the equations of motion for the

blocks and pulley.

• Combine the kinematic relationships

with the equations of motion to solve for

the accelerations and cord tension.

rest. Neglecting the masses of the pulleys

and the effect of friction in the pulleys and

between block A and the horizontal

surface, determine (a) the acceleration of

each block, (b) the tension in the cable.

© 2013 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. 2 - 23

Edition

Tenth

Vector Mechanics for Engineers: Dynamics

Group Problem Solving

SOLUTION:

xA • Write the kinematic relationships for the

dependent motions and accelerations of

the blocks.

This is the same problem worked last

yB

chapter- write the constraint equation

x A 3 yB constants L

Differentiate this twice to get the

acceleration relationship.

v A 3vB 0

a A 3aB 0

a A 3aB (1)

Edition

Tenth

Vector Mechanics for Engineers: Dynamics

Group Problem Solving

• Draw the FBD and KD for each block

2T T mAg A

B +y

maAx

T

= =

maBy +x

mBg NA

• Write the equation of motion for each block

Fx m A a A :

Fy mB aB T m A aB

WB 3T mB aB (2) From Eq (1) T 3mA aB (3)

• Solve the three equations, 3 unknowns

(3) (2) mB g 3(3mA aB ) mB aB T 3 30 kg 0.83136 m/s2

g 9.81 m/s 2 T 74.8 N

aB 0.83136 m/s 2

mA 30 kg

1 9 1 9 a A 2.49 2.49 m/s2

mB 25 kg

© 2013 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. 2 - 25

Edition

Tenth

Vector Mechanics for Engineers: Dynamics

Concept Quiz

The three systems are released from rest. Rank the

accelerations, from highest to lowest.

a) (1) > (2) > (3) d) (1) = (2) = (3)

b) (1) = (2) > (3) e) (1) = (2) < (3)

c) (2) > (1) > (3)

© 2013 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. 2 - 26

Edition

Tenth

Vector Mechanics for Engineers: Dynamics

Kinetics: Normal and Tangential Coordinates

normal forces during turns.

Edition

Tenth

Vector Mechanics for Engineers: Dynamics

Equations of Motion

• Newton’s second law F ma

• For tangential and normal components,

F ma t

F n man

t

v2

F t m

dv

dt

F n m

Edition

Tenth

Vector Mechanics for Engineers: Dynamics

Sample Problem 12.5

SOLUTION:

• Resolve the equation of motion for the

bob into tangential and normal

components.

• Solve the component equations for the

normal and tangential accelerations.

• Solve for the velocity in terms of the

normal acceleration.

The bob of a 2-m pendulum describes

an arc of a circle in a vertical plane. If

the tension in the cord is 2.5 times the

weight of the bob for the position

shown, find the velocity and accel-

eration of the bob in that position.

Edition

Tenth

Vector Mechanics for Engineers: Dynamics

Sample Problem 12.5

SOLUTION:

• Resolve the equation of motion for the bob into

tangential and normal components.

• Solve the component equations for the normal and

tangential accelerations.

Ft mat : mg sin 30 mat

at g sin 30

at 4.9 m s 2

Fn man : 2.5mg mg cos 30 man

an g 2.5 cos 30

an 16.03 m s 2

• Solve for velocity in terms of normal acceleration.

an

v2

v an 2 m 16.03 m s 2

v 5.66 m s

© 2013 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. 12 - 30

Edition

Tenth

Vector Mechanics for Engineers: Dynamics

Sample Problem 12.6

SOLUTION:

• The car travels in a horizontal circular

path with a normal component of

acceleration directed toward the center

of the path.The forces acting on the car

are its weight and a normal reaction

from the road surface.

Determine the rated speed of a the car into vertical and normal

highway curve of radius = 400 ft components.

banked through an angle q = 18o. The

rated speed of a banked highway curve • Solve for the vehicle speed.

is the speed at which a car should

travel if no lateral friction force is to

be exerted at its wheels.

Edition

Tenth

Vector Mechanics for Engineers: Dynamics

Sample Problem 12.6

• Resolve the equation of motion for

the car into vertical and normal

components.

Fy 0 : R cosq W 0

W

R

cosq

W

Fn man : R sin q an

SOLUTION: g

sin q

path with a normal component of cosq g

acceleration directed toward the center • Solve for the vehicle speed.

of the path.The forces acting on the

car are its weight and a normal v 2 g tan q

reaction from the road surface.

32.2 ft s 2 400 ft tan 18

v 64.7 ft s 44.1 mi h

© 2013 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. 12 - 32

Edition

Tenth

Vector Mechanics for Engineers: Dynamics

Group Problem Solving

v SOLUTION:

• Draw the FBD and KD for the collar.

• Write the equations of motion for the

collar.

• Determine kinematics of the collar.

• Combine the equations of motion with

The 3-kg collar B rests on the

kinematic relationships and solve.

frictionless arm AA. The collar is

held in place by the rope attached to

drum D and rotates about O in a

horizontal plane. The linear velocity

of the collar B is increasing according

to v= 0.2 t2 where v is in m/s and t is

in sec. Find the tension in the rope

and the force of the bar on the collar

after 5 seconds if r = 0.4 m.

© 2013 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. 2 - 33

Edition

Tenth

Vector Mechanics for Engineers: Dynamics

Group Problem Solving

SOLUTION: • Given: v= 0.2 t2, r = 0.4 m

• Find: T and N at t = 5 sec

et mat

en =

T N man

Fn man Ft mat

v2 dv

N m T m

dt

© 2013 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. 2 - 34

Edition

Tenth

Vector Mechanics for Engineers: Dynamics

Group Problem Solving

et

Kinematics : find vt, an, at mat

vt 0.2t 2 0.2(52 ) =5 m/s en

2 2

=

5v

an 62.5 (m/s2 )

0.4 T q N man

dv

at 0.4t 0.4(5) 2 m/s 2

dt

Fn man Ft mat

N 3.0(62.5) T 3.0(2)

N 187.5 N T 6.0 N

© 2013 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. 2 - 35

Edition

Tenth

Vector Mechanics for Engineers: Dynamics

Group Problem Solving

et

mat

How would the problem

change if motion was in the

en

=

vertical plane?

T q N man

You would add an mg term mg

and would also need to

calculate q

In most applications, an >> at

Edition

Tenth

Vector Mechanics for Engineers: Dynamics

Concept Question

B

C

A

The driver is doing the following at each point:

C – stepping on the brake D – stepping on the accelerator

at each point.

© 2013 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. 2 - 37

Edition

Tenth

Vector Mechanics for Engineers: Dynamics

Kinetics: Radial and Transverse Coordinates

extending robotic arms are

often analyzed using radial

and transverse coordinates.

Edition

Tenth

Vector Mechanics for Engineers: Dynamics

Eqs of Motion in Radial & Transverse Components

• Consider particle at r and q, in polar coordinates,

r

F mar m

r r q 2

Fq maq mrq 2rq

Edition

Tenth

Vector Mechanics for Engineers: Dynamics

Sample Problem 12.7

SOLUTION:

• Write the radial and transverse

equations of motion for the block.

• Integrate the radial equation to find an

expression for the radial velocity.

• Substitute known information into the

A block B of mass m can slide freely on transverse equation to find an

a frictionless arm OA which rotates in a expression for the force on the block.

horizontal plane at a constant rate q0 .

Knowing that B is released at a distance

r0 from O, express as a function of r

a) the component vr of the velocity of B

along OA, and

b) the magnitude of the horizontal force

exerted on B by the arm OA.

Edition

Tenth

Vector Mechanics for Engineers: Dynamics

Sample Problem 12.7

• Integrate the radial equation to find an

expression for the radial velocity.

dv dv dr dv

r vr r r vr r

dt dr dt dr

dv dv dr dv

r vr r r vr r

dt dr dt dr

vr dvr rq 2 dr rq02 dr

SOLUTION: vr r

vr dvr q0 r dr

• Write the radial and transverse 2

equations of motion for the block. 0 r0

transverse equation to find an expression

for the force on the block.

F 2mq 02 r 2

r0

2 12

Edition

Tenth

Vector Mechanics for Engineers: Dynamics

Group Problem Solving

SOLUTION:

• Draw the FBD and KD for the collar.

• Write the equations of motion for the

collar.

• Determine kinematics of the collar.

• Combine the equations of motion with

kinematic relationships and solve.

The 3-kg collar B slides on the frictionless arm AA. The arm is attached to

drum D and rotates about O in a horizontal plane at the rate q 0.75t where q

and t are expressed in rad/s and seconds, respectively. As the arm-drum

assembly rotates, a mechanism within the drum releases the cord so that the

collar moves outward from O with a constant speed of 0.5 m/s. Knowing that

at t = 0, r = 0, determine the time at which the tension in the cord is equal to

the magnitude of the horizontal force exerted on B by arm AA.

© 2013 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. 2 - 42

Edition

Tenth

Vector Mechanics for Engineers: Dynamics

Group Problem Solving

SOLUTION: • Given: q 0.75t r (0) 0

r 5 m/s

• Find: time when T = N

Draw the FBD and KD of the collar

maq

eq

er mar

=

T N

Fr mar Fq mB aq

© 2013 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. 2 - 43

Edition

Tenth

Vector Mechanics for Engineers: Dynamics

Group Problem Solving

r 5 m/s

Kinematics : find expressions for r and q r t

q (0.75t ) rad/s

0

dr 0

0.5 dt

r 0

Substitute values into ar , aq

(1.125t ) m/s2

Substitute into equation of motion Set T = N

Fr mar : T (3 kg)(0.28125t ) m/s 3 2 (0.84375t 3 ) (3.375t )

Fq mB aq : N (3 kg)(1.125t ) m/s 2 t 2 4.000

t 2.00 s

© 2013 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. 2 - 44

Edition

Tenth

Vector Mechanics for Engineers: Dynamics

Concept Quiz

e2

e1

Top View v

platform, as shown in the figure. She is walking at a constant

rate with respect to the platform, and the platform rotates at a

constant rate. In which direction(s) will the forces act on her?

a) +e1 b) - e1 c) +e2 d) - e2

e) The forces are zero in the e1 and e2 directions

© 2013 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. 2 - 45

Edition

Tenth

Vector Mechanics for Engineers: Dynamics

Angular Momentum of a Particle

Satellite orbits are analyzed using conservation

of angular momentum.

Edition

Tenth

Vector Mechanics for Engineers: Dynamics

Eqs of Motion in Radial & Transverse Components

r

F mar m

r r q 2

Fq maq mrq 2rq

• This result may also be derived from conservation

of angular momentum,

H O mr 2q

r Fq

d

dt

mr 2q

m r 2q 2rrq

Fq mrq 2rq

© 2013 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. 12 - 47

Edition

Tenth

Vector Mechanics for Engineers: Dynamics

Angular Momentum of a Particle

• H O r mV moment of momentum or the angular

momentum of the particle about O.

• H O is perpendicular to plane containing r and mV

H O rmV sin i j k

rm vq HO x y z

mr 2q mv x mv y mvz

H O r mV r mV V mV r ma

rF

MO

• It follows from Newton’s second law that the sum of

the moments about O of the forces acting on the

particle is equal to the rate of change of the angular

momentum of the particle about O.

© 2013 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. 12 - 48

Edition

Tenth

Vector Mechanics for Engineers: Dynamics

Conservation of Angular Momentum

• When only force acting on particle is directed

toward or away from a fixed point O, the particle

is said to be moving under a central force.

through O, M O H O 0 and

r mV H O constant

• Position vector and motion

of particle are in a

plane perpendicular to H O .

H O rmV sin constant

r0 mV0 sin 0

or H O mr 2q constant

HO angular momentum

r 2q h

m unit mass

© 2013 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. 12 - 49

Edition

Tenth

Vector Mechanics for Engineers: Dynamics

Conservation of Angular Momentum

• Radius vector OP sweeps infinitesimal area

dA 12 r 2 dq

dA 1 2 dq 1 2

• Define 2r 2 r q areal velocity

dt dt

h r 2q constant

areal velocity is constant.

Edition

Tenth

Vector Mechanics for Engineers: Dynamics

Newton’s Law of Gravitation

• Gravitational force exerted by the sun on a planet or by

the earth on a satellite is an important example of

gravitational force.

• Newton’s law of universal gravitation - two particles of

mass M and m attract each other with equal and opposite

force directed along the line connecting the particles,

Mm

F G 2

r

G constant of gravitatio n

12 m3 9 ft 4

66.73 10 34.4 10

kg s 2

lb s 4

• For particle of mass m on the earth’s surface,

MG m ft

W m 2 mg g 9.81 2 32.2 2

R s s

Edition

Tenth

Vector Mechanics for Engineers: Dynamics

Sample Problem 12.8

SOLUTION:

• Since the satellite is moving under a

central force, its angular momentum is

constant. Equate the angular momentum

at A and B and solve for the velocity at B.

parallel to the surface of the earth

with a velocity of 18820 mi/h from

an altitude of 240 mi. Determine the

velocity of the satellite as it reaches it

maximum altitude of 2340 mi. The

radius of the earth is 3960 mi.

Edition

Tenth

Vector Mechanics for Engineers: Dynamics

Sample Problem 12.8

SOLUTION:

• Since the satellite is moving under a

central force, its angular momentum is

constant. Equate the angular momentum

at A and B and solve for the velocity at B.

rm v sin H O constant

rA m v A rB m v B

rA

vB v A

rB

3960 240mi

18820mi h

3960 2340mi

v B 12550 mi h

Edition

Tenth

Vector Mechanics for Engineers: Dynamics

Trajectory of a Particle Under a Central Force

• For particle moving under central force directed towards force center,

m r rq 2 Fr F mrq 2rq Fq 0

h h2 d 2 1

q and r 2 2 r

r2 r dq

d 2u F 1

u where u

dq 2 mh 2u 2 r

found by integrating for u = f(q), with constants of integration

determined from initial conditions.

Edition

Tenth

Vector Mechanics for Engineers: Dynamics

Application to Space Mechanics

• Consider earth satellites subjected to only gravitational pull

of the earth,

d 2u F 1 GMm

u where u F GMmu 2

dq 2 mh 2u 2 r r2

d 2u GM

u constant

dq 2

h 2

1 GM Ch 2

u 2 1 cosq eccentricity

r h GM

on value of eccentricity.

Edition

Tenth

Vector Mechanics for Engineers: Dynamics

Application to Space Mechanics

• Trajectory of earth satellite is defined by

1 GM Ch2

2 1 cosq eccentricity

r h GM

becomes infinite for

1 1 1 GM

1 cosq1 0 q1 cos cos

C h2

• parabola, = 1 or C = GM/h2. The radius vector

becomes infinite for

1 cosq 2 0 q 2 180

for q and is constant, i.e., a circle, for < 0.

Edition

Tenth

Vector Mechanics for Engineers: Dynamics

Application to Space Mechanics

• Integration constant C is determined by conditions

at beginning of free flight, q =0, r = r0 ,

1 GM Ch 2

2 1 cos 0

r0 h GM

1 GM 1 GM

C 2

r0 h r0 r0 v0 2

1 or C GM h 2 GM r0 v0 2

2GM

vesc v0

r0

circular for = 0 or C = 0,

GM

vcirc

r0

© 2013 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. 12 - 57

Edition

Tenth

Vector Mechanics for Engineers: Dynamics

Application to Space Mechanics

• Recall that for a particle moving under a central

force, the areal velocity is constant, i.e.,

dA 1 2 1

2 r q 2 h constant

dt

• Periodic time or time required for a satellite to

complete an orbit is equal to area within the orbit

divided by areal velocity,

ab 2 ab

h2 h

where a 12 r0 r1

b r0 r1

Edition

Tenth

Vector Mechanics for Engineers: Dynamics

Sample Problem 12.9

SOLUTION:

• Trajectory of the satellite is described by

1 GM

2 C cosq

r h

Evaluate C using the initial conditions

at q = 0.

A satellite is launched in a direction

• Determine the maximum altitude by

parallel to the surface of the earth

finding r at q = 180o.

with a velocity of 36,900 km/h at an

altitude of 500 km. • With the altitudes at the perigee and

apogee known, the periodic time can

Determine:

be evaluated.

a) the maximum altitude reached by

the satellite, and

b) the periodic time of the satellite.

Edition

Tenth

Vector Mechanics for Engineers: Dynamics

Sample Problem 12.9

SOLUTION:

• Trajectory of the satellite is described by

1 GM

2 C cosq

r h

Evaluate C using the initial conditions

at q = 0.

r0 6370 500 km 1 GM

C 2

r0 h

6.87 106 m

km 1000 m/km 1 398 1012 m3 s 2

v 0 36900

h 3600 s/h 6.87 10 m

6

70.4 m s

2 2

h r0v0 6.87 106 m 10.25 103 m s

70.4 109 m 2 s

GM gR 2 9.81m s 2 6.37 106 m 2

398 1012 m3 s 2

© 2013 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. 12 - 60

Edition

Tenth

Vector Mechanics for Engineers: Dynamics

Sample Problem 12.9

• Determine the maximum altitude by finding r1

at q = 180o.

1 GM 398 1012 m3 s 2 9 1

2 C

65.3 10

r1 h 2 2 m

70.4 m s

r1 66.7 106 m 66700 km

max altitude 66700 - 6370km 60300 km

the periodic time can be evaluated.

a 12 r0 r1 12 6.87 66.7 106 m 36.8 106 m

b r0 r1 6.87 66.7 106 m 21.4 106 m

2 ab 2 36.8 106 m 21.4 106 m

h 70.4 109 m 2 s

Edition

Tenth

Vector Mechanics for Engineers: Dynamics

Kepler’s Laws of Planetary Motion

applied to trajectories of planets around the sun.

astronomical observations by Johann Kepler (1571-1630) before

Newton had developed his fundamental theory.

1) Each planet describes an ellipse, with the sun located at one of its

foci.

2) The radius vector drawn from the sun to a planet sweeps equal

areas in equal times.

3) The squares of the periodic times of the planets are proportional to

the cubes of the semimajor axes of their orbits.

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