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What is an Antenna?

• An antenna is a device for radiating and

receiving radio waves
Types of Antennas
Types by Physical Structure:
• A good antenna would radiate almost all the power delivered to it
from the transmitter in a desired direction or directions.
• A receiver antenna does the reciprocal process, and delivers power
received from a desired direction or directions.
• Wire antennas
• Aperture antennas
• Microstrip antennas
• Antenna arrays
• Reflector antennas
• Lens antennas
•dipole, monopole, loop antenna, helix
•Usually used in personal applications, automobiles, buildings, ships, aircrafts
and spacecrafts.
Aperture antennas: horn antennas, waveguide opening
Usually used in aircrafts and space crafts, because these antennas can be
flush mounted
Radiation Mechanism:
• When electric charges undergo acceleration or
deceleration, electromagnetic radiation will be
• Hence it is the motion of charges, that is
currents, is the source of radiation.
• Here it may be highlighted that, not all current
distributions will produce a strong enough
radiation for communication
Conditions for radiation

• If the charge is not moving, a current is not
created and there is no radiation.
If a charge is moving with an uniform velocity,
• there is no radiation if the wire is straight, and
infinite in extent
• there is radiation if the wire is curved, bent,
discontinuous, terminated, or truncated
• If the charge is oscillating in a time-motion, it
radiates even if the wire is straight.