Failure Analysis

Basic Concepts

Background

About FMECA
FMECA
‡ a structured method of determining:
‡ equipment functions ‡ functional failures
assessing the causes of failures and their failure effects.

Group Work Maintenance Plans .

Maintenance Plans ‡ Break into groups of 5 ‡ Discuss maintenance plans in: ‡ 1960¶s ‡ 1970¶s ‡ 1980¶s .

The Key benefits of FMECA Criticality ± ‡ Identification of critical areas of operation ‡ Identification of critical systems within areas FMEA ‡ Reduced downtime by avoiding failures ‡ Reduced time spent on unnecessary maintenance ‡ Revised Preventive Maintenance schedules ‡ Adoption of new maintenance tasks ‡ Critical component stores listings ‡ Revised Log Book procedures ‡ And more « .

Causes of Downtime Equipment Failure Production Related Fit for Purpose .

Equipment Failure ± Quality of Parts ± Effectiveness of Maintenance Strategy ± Operation of Equipment ± Poor Design ± Quality of Maintenance ± Fast Running of Machines ± Bad Operating Practices ± Poor Maintenance Planning ± Skills/Ability of Craftsmen .

Production Related ± Quality of Raw Materials ± Formulation ± Operating Procedures ± Production Planning ± Schedule Maintenance Requirements ± Development Projects ± Lack of Labor ± Weak Management ± Product Changeovers ± Equipment Set-Ups ± Skills of Operators .

Fit for Purpose ± Design Specification ± Selection of Materials ± Stretch the Plant/Process ± Modifications ± Location and Access to Equipment .

Maintenance Technical Strategy .

Maintenance Technical Strategy ³Living Maintenance´ .

Maintenance Technical Strategy Relationship between a Component and Plant .

Types of Maintenance .

Planned or Unplanned Maintenance Corrective Maintenance Emergency Breakdown Operator to Failure .

Planned Maintenance Preventive Maintenance Condition Based Schedule Based .

Failure Characteristics of Plant A thorough investigation into the characteristics of each unit must be carried out in order to identify: ‡ The behaviour or performance of each unit ‡ The production pattern ‡ The unit type MTBF .

Types of Units ‡ Single units ‡ A series continuous process unit .

Predictive Maintenance ‡ Human senses (sight. etc) ‡ Quality measures . touch and smell) ‡ Monitoring with test instruments (vibration. etc) ‡ Performance monitoring (combustion analysis. sound.

Predictive Maintenance Determining Lead Time .

Fixed Time Maintenance Pattern of Equipment Failure .

Fixed Time Maintenance Probability of Failure vs. Predictable Failure .

Teamwork

Pre-FMECA Requirements

Current PM Schedules and Tasks

Non-PM Work Orders The information from Non-PM WorkOrders should ideally include: ‡ Date ‡ Work Description ‡ Parts Usage ‡ Task Time .

Current Downtime Data .

Costs Data Redundant Labour Costs Maintenance Costs Depreciation Overheads .

Drawings & Manuals ‡ P & IDs ‡ Assembly Drawings ‡ Installation Drawings ‡ Manufacturers Documentation .

Set. Minimum Stock on Hand. Frequency of Usage. Pair. Cost per Unit.Spare Parts A list of spare parts may be required and should include the following: ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ Local Inventory Spare Parts Number. Manufacturer / Supplier. Stock on Hand. Unit Type (Each. . etc).

Establishing Maintenance Plan .

.Defining Criticality Analysis What is Criticality? A criticality system provides the means of ranking equipment taking into account the plant¶s operational requirements and the equipment function.

Criticality Factors .

Potential for a lost time accident.Factor for Effect on Safety or Environment Factor Score 1 Description Little or no risk to the safety of the equipment or people or the environment. Severe safety consequences that could involve loss of life. or significant damage to equipment. or discharge to atmosphere or water which requires notification to relevant authorities. 2 3 4 . Risk of minor injury or damage to equipment or minor levels of pollution. major injuries and/or destruction of equipment and/or significant environmental discharges which result in a fire or removal of operating licences.

Calculation of Criticality .

. Equipment failure would cause over 25% of plant production to stop.Factor A ± Effect on Production Output This factor considers the impact of the equipment failure on the process of the plant. 1 2 Minor impact on production. 4 Major impact on the plant¶s operations. Factor Description Factor Score No significant impact/standby equipment is available. Unlikely to affect other areas of the plant. Failure would have a significant impact on output and 3 may affect other sections.

Factor Description Equipment is used on an occasional basis. . 4 Equipment is required to function for all of the planned time. required 3 to function for a proportion of the planned production time.Factor B . Equipment is part of a continuous process. Factor Score 1 Equipment is required to function independently for 2 up to 50% of available time.Utilisation This factor measures the importance of the equipment in terms of the required utilisation within its operating environment.

Minor effect on Product quality.Factor C . .Quality This factor measures the effect on product quality. Critical effect on product quality and can result in major losses. Factor Description Factor Score 1 2 3 No effect on product quality.

which requires notification to relevant authorities. equipment or the environment. Catastrophic resulting in loss of life. damage to equipment and environment. Major risk to people resulting in a lost time accident.Factor D ± Effect on Safety or Environment This factor is concerned with assessing the effects of an equipment failure in terms of the risk of injury to people. or destruction of equipment and/or significant environmental discharges which result in the removal or operating licences. Factor Score 1 2 3 4 . Factor Description Little or no risk to the safety of people. significant damage to equipment or the environment. Minor risk to people. equipment or the environment. implications for the company if equipment fails in service.

Getting the Criticality Score Step 1 ± Criticality Score Criticality Score = (Factors) A x B x C x D .

less than once per year. Failure likely between 1 and 3 months. . Frequent failures at least once per week. Frequent failures at least once per month. The information should be obtained from equipment history records or best estimates.Factor E ± Frequency of Failure This factor requires assessment of failure rate. Occasional failure between 3 and 12 months. Description Factor Score 1 2 3 4 5 Failures are rare.

30 Mins 30 .8 hrs >8 hrs Factor Score 1 2 3 4 Minor Significant Major Severe .Factor F ± Average Downtime/Repair Time Downtime Downtime Duration 0 .120 Mins 2 .

. Quantity 0% 5% 15% Factor Score 1 2 3 4 Quantities of waste are significant + 15% and warrant immediate attention. Small amounts of waste are produced by a failure. Waste is produced during production that is significant.Factor G ± Potential for Waste Reduction Factor Description No waste is generated under normal operating conditions.

Getting the Criticality Score Step 2 ± Equipment Score Equipment Score = (Factors) E x F x G .

Score) x (Equip. Score) .Getting the Criticality Score Step 3 ± Overall Score Overall core (Critic.

23 Equipment Category (A) (B) (C) .Equipment Classification and Criteria Criticality Score 80 .79 1 .320 24 .

Gearbox Lube Oil Pump ecycle Compressor Lube Oil Pump ecycle Compressor ecycle Compressor Gland Ejector ank Vent elief Stack Flame rap Vessel Catalyst Screw Conveyor Gear Box for Catalyst Screw Feeder Unloading opper Catalyst opper Catalyst Dissolving Pot rrigation Filter C1 Demister Vessel Sump Pump £Durco) nter/Aftercooler for K201/1 nter/Aftercooler for K201/2 Gearbox for C1 Compressor K201/1 Gearbox for C1 Compressor K201/2 C1 Comp Gland ejectors C1 Comp Gland Ejectors C1 Compressor C1 Compressor nter/Aftercooler Fan nter/Aftercooler Fan P P P P P P P P P P P P P P P Example B 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 C 3 3 3 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 D 4 3 3 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 4 3 3 3 3 3 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 3 3 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 AxBxCxD E 1 1 1 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 1 1 1 1 2 1 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 1 1 3 3 3 3 3 2 1 2 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 F 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 2 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 3 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 S251 S252 S252 S201 S201 S201 S201 S201 S253 S253 S251 S202 S252 S252 S251 J93-1126/P1 J93-1128/P1 J93-1116 J93-1116 J93-1116 J93-1116 J93-1116 J93-1116 J94-1115/P1 J94-1115/P1 J94-1083/P1 J93-1122 J93-1130/P1 J93-1130/P1 J93-1126/P1 J93-1128 J93-1128 J93-1128/P1 J93-1128/P1 J93-1128/P1 J93-1128/P1 J93-1128/P1 J93-1128 J93-1131 J93-1131 J93-1125/P2 J93-1140 J93-1125/P2 J93-1125/P2 J93-1125/P2 J93=1122 J93-1122 J93=1134 J93=1123 J93=1124 J93=1124 J93=1123 J93-1124 J93-1124 J93-1124 J93-1123 J93-1124 J93-1123 P S252 P S251 P P P P P P P S251 S251 S251 S202 S202 S202 S202 P P S202 S202 £ £ £ £ £ £ £ £ £ £ ¥ ¥ ¥ ¥ ¥ ¥ ¥ ¥ ¥ ¥ 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 192 144 144 64 64 64 64 64 64 64 64 64 64 48 48 48 48 48 48 48 48 48 48 48 48 48 48 48 32 32 32 32 32 32 32 32 32 32 32 32 32 32 32 32 32 32 4 4 4 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 16 16 16 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 4 4 4 4 4 4 16 16 16 16 16 16 16 16 4 4 12 12 12 12 12 8 4 6 16 16 16 16 16 16 16 16 16 16 3072 2304 2304 512 512 512 512 512 512 512 512 512 256 192 192 192 192 192 768 768 768 768 768 768 768 768 192 192 384 384 384 384 384 256 128 192 512 512 512 512 512 512 512 512 512 512 £ £ £ ¡   Local No. of Ave Waste Score uality (PS) & Env (ES) Failure D¶time dn G ExFxG (ESxPS) ¢ ¡ £ £ £ £ £ £ £ £ £ £ £ £ £ £ £ £ £ £ £ £ £ £ £ £ £ £ Comments FMECA Work Sheet No. Equip. ¤ ¤ ¤ ¥ £ ¥ ¥ £ £ £ £ £ ¥ ¥ £ ¥ ¥ £ £ £ ¥ ¥ ¥ ¥ ¦ ¤ ¤ £ £ £ ¥ ¥ ¥¥ ¤£ £ ¦ ¥¦ ¥ ¥ ¥ ¦¦ ¥¦ £ ¤ EC eactor eactor Condenser eactor Condenser Dryer Package Dryer Package Dryer Package Dryer Package Dryer Package Dryer Package Dryer Package erun Column erun Column Slops Dryer 1 EC Vent Scrubber EC Vent Scrubber Ethylene System Polymer 5 ecycle ecycle ecycle ecycle ecycle ecycle ecycle ecycle Stack Stack Catalyst System Catalyst System Catalyst System Catalyst System Catalyst System Dryer 6 Dryer 7 EC Sump CL Compression CP Compression CL Compression CL Compression CL Compression CL Compression CL Compression CL Compression CL Compression CL Compression EC0014 EC0013 EC0013 EC0001 EC0001 EC0001 EC0001 EC0001 EC09001 EC0001 EC0011 EC0011 EC0012 EC0002 EC0016 EC0016 EC0017 EC0018 ) ) ) )EC0010 ) ) ) ) EC0019 EC0019 EC0007 EC0008 ) ) ) ) ) ) ) ) )EC0009 ) . Description P S No Flow Sheet No. Overall Priority Factors Priority otal Score Score Safety Freq.Equipment Classification and Criteria Criticality Output Util¶n A 251 E252/1 E252/2 D202/1 D202/2 E205 E206 K205 S203 V205 C254 E258 V255 C201 C256 E253 J251 V254 G251 J255 K251 M251 P256/1 P256/2 P256/3 255 GB201 X251 B251 G252 V251 V252 V253 S202 S205 P253/2 E204/1 E204/2 G201/1 G201/2 J203/1 J203/2 K201/1 K201/2 K204/1 K204/2 EC eactor eactor Condenser eactor Condenser Absorber ower ydrogen Dryer Absorber ower ydrogen Dryer ntercooler for D202/1 and 2 Steam eater for D202/1 & 2 Blower for ydrogen Dryers Dust afterfilter for ydrogen Dryer 2 Drying ydr/water Separator e-run Column e-run eboiler Slops Drum C1 Drying Column ( op & Bottom Sections EC Vent Gas Scrubber Vent Gas eater eactor Mixing Nozzle Polymer Knock Out Drum Gear Box for C1 ecycle Comp K251 ecycle Compressor Gland Ejector C1 ecycle Compressor Non Condensing Geared urbine for K251 Lube Oil Pump ecycle comp.

Equipment Classification and Criteria Typi l i tri tion of or N mb r f It m Low Criti lit S r Hi .

maximise availability to meet production demand Minimise maintenance costs Selection Techniques Use RCM/FMECA B Use FMECA C Based on manufacturers recommendations and experience. Target zero failures Minimise failures.Equipment Classification and Criteria Equipment Category A Maintenance Criteria Maximum availability and reliability. .

.Simplified Version of Criticality Category A (1) Criticality Vital Situation Main process equipment whose outage results in immediate production loss and penalty cost. Safety equipment whose outage creates danger or damage to equipment. or loss of life or injury.

. Life support equipment whose outage of more than 24 hours could cause health problems or produce disagreeable operating or environment conditions. All safety equipment not already classified vital.Simplified Version of Criticality B (2) Essential Process and auxiliary equipment. usually spared. whose outage does not normally cause immediate loss of production but whose continued outage (more than 24 hours) could lead to production loss and penalty cost.

Simplified Version of Criticality C (3) Support All other process equipment and that life support equipment whose outage of more than 72 hours would affect operating conditions. seals. Commodity articles which directly support process equipment or processes. chart paper. . Examples are general purpose bearings. lubricants. gases.

.Simplified Version of Criticality D (4) Operational All non-industrial equipment and life support equipment not already classified. All commodity articles not already classified.

Criticality Scoresheet .

Criticality Classification .

Criticality Sorting .

Criticality Assessment .

Defining FMECA .

Failure Characteristics .

g. e. lost performance ‡ Failure Cause Describes the principle cause of failure . noise.Definitions and Examples ‡ Failure Mode Describes how the system or component fails ‡ Failure Effect Describes the effect of the failure.

Definitions and Examples Modes Collapsed Seized Fractured Burnt `Failed¶ Ruptured Decay Causes Overload Wear Erosion Corrosion Fouling Decay Perishing Contamination Effects/Symptoms Deformation Temperature Changes Flow Rates Lost Efficiency Spillages Vibration Lost Performance Tolerances Noise Pressure Levels .

Noisy 8. 4. Internal leakage 8. Corroded Contaminated Open circuit Short circuit Out of tolerance (drifted) 6. Fails to start 1. Seized 5. Burned 10.Failure Modes 1. Unstable 10. 5. Fails to stop 10. Overloaded . Delayed operation 9. Loose 3. Overheated 8. Fails to close 5. External leakage 9. 2. 3. Fails open 6. Fails closed 7. Collapsed 11. Sticking 7. Distorted 3. Binding/jamming 2. Worn 6. Incorrect adjustment 4. Cracked/fracture 2. Fails to open 4. Scored 7. Chafed 1. Arcing 9.

Failure Effects and Causes .

Failure Cause .

Deterioration Characteristics & MTBF .

VERY HIGH probability of occurrence. but not in major proportions. Generally associated with equipment or components that have shown up occasional failures. . Generally associated with equipment or components similar to ones that have traditionally caused problems. Generally associated with equipment or components similar to above with a relatively low number of failures per unit. LOW probability of occurrence. Near certainty that major failures will occur. HIGH probability of occurrence. It would be unreasonable to expect failure to occur. MODERATE probability of occurrence.Risk Priority Number ± Occurrence Ratings Criteria Rating Possible Failure Occurrence Rate (Weeks) 0 1: 100 1: 50 REMOTE probability of occurrence. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 1: 26 1: 13 1: 8 1: 4 1: 2 9 10 1: 1 Less than 1 week Possible failure occurrence rates are meant as a guideline only.

A very minor failure which would have no noticeable effect on the system performance.Risk Priority Number ± Severity Ratings Criteria MINOR SEVERITY .A failure which may cause damage to property. or would cause noticeable deterioration in system performance. serious injury or death. Does not affect safety or ability to meet regulations. Operator would probably not notice the failure. CATASTROPHIC .g. discomfort or annoyance. Operator would not notice any deterioration of system performance. LOW SEVERITY . MODERATE SEVERITY .A failure which would affect safety or ability to meet regulations.A failure which would engender a high degree of system dissatisfaction (e.A minor failure causing only slight system annoyance. VERY HIGH SEVERITY .A failure which would cause some system dissatisfaction. inoperative control). Rating 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 . HIGH SEVERITY .

pressure drop or visible leaks.g. Effect Describe the effect of each failure.FMECA Form Completion 1. Failure Mode For each item describe the most likely reason for failure 4. Equipment Enter the equipment name and plant item number 2. The effect should relate specifically to the item under consideration and to the total equipment. e. . Function Describe the component¶s function 3.

e. normal wear. Calculate the RPN for each . e. 6. Cause Describe the principle cause of failure.g. Risk Priority 7.FMECA Form Completion 5.g. Number (RPN) failure mode.

increasing. Mean Time Between Failure MTBF Enter the known or estimated time between failures for each item. Failure Characteristic Decide if the failure is random.FMECA Form Completion 8. Type Is the failure Evident (E) or Hidden (H). 10. Maintenance Approach The applicable maintenance approaches are determined using a maintenance strategy decision diagram . 11. 9. predictable or age related.

Why why analysis Case study More videos .

Elements .

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