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Cardiorespiratory Adaptations to

Cardiovascular Adaptations
From Aerobic Training
 Increased cardiorespiratory endurance
 Increased muscular endurance
 Decreased VO2 at rest and submaximal exercise
 IncreasedVO2 Max
 Increased heart weight, volume, and chamber size
 Increased left ventricle wall thickness “athletes heart”
 Increased left ventricle EDV
 Increased blood plasma
 Increased Stroke Volume (fig. 10.3)
 from increased EDV and decreased ESV = increased EF
 Frank-Starling law: elastic recoil of the ventricle
Cardiovascular Adaptations
From Aerobic Training
 Decreased resting heart rate
 from increased parasympathetic activity and decreased
sympathetic activity.
 Decreased submaximal heart rate
 Decreased maximum heart rate of elite athletes
 if your heart rate is too fast the period of ventricular filling is
reduced and your stroke volume might be compromised.
 the heart expends less energy by contracting less often but
more forcibly than it would by contracting more often.
 Decreased Heart Rate Recovery (fig. 10.5)
Cardiovascular Adaptations
From Aerobic Training
 Maintained cardiac output at rest and submaximal
 Increased cardiac output during maximal exercise
 Increased blood flow to the muscles
 increased capillarization of trained muscles
 greater opening of existing capillaries in trained muscles
 more effective blood redistribution
 increased blood volume
 decreased blood viscosity & increased oxygen delivery
 Decreased resting blood pressure, but is unchanged
during exercise
 from increased blood flow
Cardiovascular Adaptations
From Aerobic Training
 Increased blood volume (blood plasma) and is greater
with more intense levels of training
 increased release of antidiuretic hormone
 increased plasma proteins which help retain blood fluid
 increased red blood cell volume
 decreased blood viscosity
Respiratory Adaptations From
Aerobic Training
 Respiratory system functioning usually does not
limit performance because ventilation can be
increased to a greater extent than cardiovascular
 Slight increase in Total lung Capacity
 Slight decrease in Residual Lung Volume
 Increased Tidal Volume at maximal exercise levels
 Decreased respiratory rate and pulmonary
ventilation at rest and at submaximal exercise
 (RR) decreases because of greater pulmonary efficiency
 Increased respiratory rate and pulmonary ventilation
at maximal exercise levels
 from increased tidal volume
Respiratory Adaptations From
Aerobic Training
 Unchanged pulmonary diffusion
at rest and submaximal exercise.
 Increased pulmonary diffusion
during maximal exercise.
 from increased circulation and
increased ventilation
 from more alveoli involved during
maximal exercise
 Increased A-VO2 difference
especially at maximal exercise.
Metabolic Adaptations From
Aerobic Training
 Lactate threshold occurs at a higher percentage of
VO2 Max.
 from a greater ability to clear lactate from the muscles
 from an increase in skeletal muscle enzymes
 Decreased Respiratory Exchange Ratio (ratio of
carbon dioxide released to oxygen consumed)
 from a higher utilization of fatty acids instead of carbo’s
 however, the RER increases from the ability to perform at
maximum levels of exercise for longer periods of time
because of high lactate tolerance.
 Increased resting metabolic rate
 Decreased VO2 during submaximal exercise
 from a metabolic efficiency and mechanical efficiency
Metabolic Adaptations From
Aerobic Training
 Large increases in VO2 Max
 in mature athletes, the highest attainable VO2 Max is
reached within 8 to 18 months of heavy endurance
 VO2 Max is influenced by “training” in early
 from increased oxidative enzymes

 from increased size and number of mitochondria

 from increased blood volume, cardiac output & O2

 from increased capillary density
Cardiorespiratory Adaptations
From Anaerobic Training
 Small increase in cardiorespiratory endurance
 Small increase in VO2 Max
 Small increases in Stroke Volume
Cardiorespiratory Adaptations
From Resistance Training
 Small increase in left ventricle size
 Decreased resting heart rate
 Decreased submaximal heart rate
 Decreased resting blood pressure is greater than from
endurance training
 Resistance training has a positive effect on aerobic
endurance but aerobic endurance has a negative
effect on strength, speed and power.
 muscular strength is decreased
 reaction and movement times are decreased
 agility and neuromuscular coordination are decreased
 concentration and alterness are decreased
Factors Affecting the
Adaptation to Aerobic
 Heredity accounts for between 25% and 50% of the
variance in VO2 Max values.
 Age-Related decreases in VO2 Max might partly
result from an age-related decrease in activity levels.
 Gender plays a small role (10% difference) in the VO2
Max values of male and female endurance athletes.
 There will be RESPONDERS (large improvement)
and NONRESPONDERS (little improvement) among
groups of people who experience identical training.
 The greater the Specificity of Training for a given
sport or activity, the greater the improvement in
Applications to Exercise
 Breathe Right nasal strips
 “head up” during recovery
 O2 on the sidelines
 active recovery
 stretching before and after
intense exercise
 smokers beware
 stitch in the side
 second wind
 resist the valsalva
 exercise increases the quality
of life more than the
quantity of life