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CHEMISTRY of life

How the
molecules are
arranged in
macromolecules
CHEMISTRY OF LIFES: ATOMS

 Life’s unique characteristics start with the properties of
different atoms.

 Atoms are tiny (20 million times smaller than a grain of
sand) particles that are building blocks of all substances.

 Atoms consist of even smaller subatomic particles:
positively charged protons (p+), uncharged neutrons,
and negatively charged electrons (e–).
CHEMISTRY OF LIFES: ATOMS

 Charge is an
electrical property.
Opposite charges
attract, and like
charges repel.

 Protons and
neutrons cluster
in an atom’s
central core, or
nucleus, and
electrons move
around the
nucleus .
CHEMISTRY OF LIFES: ATOMS
• An atom can be imagined as
a multilevel apartment No. of
building electrons

2
• The nucleus is the basement.

• Each “floor” of the atomic 8
building is occupied by
certain numbers of electrons
which corresponds to a
certain energy level.
8
• From the top floor (outermost
shell) one or two electrons
can be rented.
CHEMISTRY OF LIFES: ATOMS AND ELECTRONS
CHEMISTRY OF LIFES: ATOMS
• If an atom’s outermost shell is full of electrons, we
say that it has no vacancies.
• Ex: Helium
• Atoms of such elements are chemically inactive,
which means they are most stable as single atoms.
CHEMISTRY OF LIFES: ATOMS

• If an atom’s outermost shell has room for another
electron, it has a vacancy.
• Ex: Hydrogen has one vacancy.
• Atoms with vacancies tend to interact with other
atoms: They give up, acquire, or share electrons until
they have no vacancies in their outermost shell.
• Any atom is in its most stable state when it has no
vacancies.
CHEMISTRY OF LIFES: ATOMS
• The number of protons in an atom’s nucleus is
called the atomic number, and it determines the
type of atom, or element.
• Ex. Atomic number of O is 8
• Mass number = Total number of protons and
neutrons in the nucleus of an element's atoms.
Elements
• Pure substances that cannot be broken down
chemically into simpler kinds of matter
• consists only of atoms with the same number
of protons
• More than 100 elements (92 naturally
occurring)
From Atoms to Molecules
• A molecule is a group of atoms that are
bound tightly together by chemical bonds.
• Compound = combination of two or more
different elements (e.g. H2O)
• Molecules are held together by chemical
bonds
• Chemical Bond: A molecule is a particle
composed of two or more atoms. The force that
holds the atoms together in a molecule is
called a chemical bond.
– ionic bonds
– covalent bonds
CHEMISTRY OF LIFES: SWAPPING ELECTRON
• If an atom has an equal number of electrons and
protons then it carries no overall (net) charge.
• An atom with different numbers of electrons and
protons carries a charge. When an atom is charged,
we call it an ion.
CHEMISTRY OF LIFES: SWAPPING ELECTRON
• An atom acquires a positive charge by losing an
electron.
• Conversely, an atom acquires a negative charge by
pulling an electron away from another atom.
• Electronegativity is a measure of an atom’s ability
to pull electrons away from other atoms.
CHEMISTRY OF LIFES: SWAPPING ELECTRON

• Atom’s electronegativity depends on its size and how
many vacancies it has
CHEMISTRY OF LIFES:Sharing Electrons

• Atoms tend to get rid of vacancies not only by
gaining or losing electrons (thereby becoming ions)
but also by sharing electrons with other atoms.

• This electron sharing is associated with chemical
bonding.
CHEMISTRY OF LIFES:CHEMICAL BONDS

• There are 3 major types of bond based on the
properties of atoms. These are;

1. Ionic
2. Covalent
3. Hydrogen bond
CHEMISTRY OF LIFES: CHEMICAL BONDS

IONIC BONDS:
• An ionic bond is a strong mutual attraction of
oppositely charged ions.

– a strongly electronegative atom tends to gain electrons until its
outermost shell is full. At that point it will be a negatively
charged ion. A weakly electronegative atom tends to lose
electrons until its outermost shell is full.

• Such bonds do not usually form by the direct transfer
of an electron from one atom to another; rather,
atoms that have already become ions stay close
together because of their opposite charges
CHEMISTRY OF LIFES: IONIC BONDS
CHEMISTRY OF LIFES: CHEMICAL BONDS

COVALENT BONDS:
• In a covalent bond, two atoms share a pair of
electrons.

• Such bonds typically form between atoms with
similar electronegativity and unpaired electrons.

• By sharing their electrons, each atom’s vacancy
becomes partially filled.

• Covalent bonds can be stronger than ionic bonds, but
they are not always so.
CHEMISTRY OF LIFES: CHEMICAL BONDS

Structural formulas show how covalent bonds connect atoms. A line
between two atoms represents a single covalent bond, in which two atoms
share one pair of electrons .A simple example is molecular hydrogen (H2)
Two Types of Covalent Bonds

• Nonpolar Covalent Bond
– The atoms participating in the bond are sharing
electrons equally. There is no difference in charge
between the two ends of such bonds.

• Polar Covalent Bond
– Atoms participating in the bonds do not share
electrons equally.
– One atom pulls the electrons a little more toward its
"end" of the bond, so that atom bears a slightly
negative charge. The atom at the other end of the
bond bears a slightly positive charge.
CHEMISTRY OF LIFES: CHEMICAL BONDS

Many atoms participate in more than one covalent bond at the same
time. The oxygen atom in a water molecule (HOH) is one example.
Many atoms can share multiple electrons and forms multiple covalent
bonds. Ex. Two oxygen atoms, each with eight protons, share four
electrons in a double covalent bond.
Polar Covalent Bond

 Polarity occurs when atoms
electrons are unequal due
to differences in
electronegativities.
This is seen in water
(H2O).

 More electronegative atoms
tend to pull electrons
toward them creating a
polar molecule.

The oxygen atom in a water molecule carries a slight negative
charge, and each of the hydrogen atoms carries a slight positive
charge. Any separation of charge into distinct positive and
negative regions is called polarity.
Ionization

 Molecules formed by ionic
bonding breakup (ionization)
when dissolved in water
(solvent), producing separate
positive (cation) and negative
(anion) ions.

These ions conduct
electricity and thus called
electrolytes.
CHEMISTRY OF LIFES: CHEMICAL BONDS
HYDROGEN BOND:
• A hydrogen bond is a
weak attraction between a
covalently bonded
hydrogen atom and
another atom taking part
in a separate polar
covalent bond.
• In a hydrogen bond, the
atom interacting with the
hydrogen is typically an
oxygen, nitrogen, or other
highly electronegative
atom.
CHEMISTRY OF LIFES: CHEMICAL BONDS
HYDROGEN BOND:
• Hydrogen bonds form by the mutual attraction of
opposite charges: The hydrogen atom carries a
slight positive charge and the other atom carries a
slight negative charge.
• Hydrogen bonds are individually weak, but
collectively strong