Isothermal transformation kinetics

T Time-Temperature-Transformation curve (TTT-curve)

Time to 50% completion


5µ m t=2000 sec t=2000 sec . t=600 sec Coarse pearlite (large spacing) t=800 sec NOTE: Each colony is a complex intertwined set of one ferrite grain and one cementite grain.65Mn (wt%).07Si-0. Austenitized at 860°C.81C-0.Eutectoid decomposition Low nucleation rate High diffusivity Small undercooling l: 0. Transformed at 705°C: 50 µ m t=150 sec Large pearlite colonies t=300 sec NOTE: Soft impingement is minimal for eutectoid growth.

65Mn (wt%).81C-0.Eutectoid decomposition teel: 0.07Si-0.7 sec . Austenitized at 860°C: Higher nucleation rate 50 µ m 650°C t=10 sec 650°C t=70 sec Higher growth rate 650°C t=20 sec 550°C t=0.5 sec 550°C t=0.

Eutectoid decomposition eel: 0.81C-0. .65Mn (wt%). Austenitized at 860°C. Transformed at 500°C: t=0.07Si-0. we see both pearlite and upper bainite.5 sec 50 µ m 5µ m t=2 sec 50 µ m 5µ m Around the “knee” of the TTT curve.

Summary of eutectoid decomposition .

Proeutectoid ferrite Steel: 0. . which thickens and grows as grain boundary allotriomorphs.55wt%C. Austenitized at 860°C. followed by decomposition of austenite to pearlite. Transformed at 705°C: t=20 sec t=120 sec (2 min) t=1200 sec (20 min) t=3600 sec (1 hr) t=7200 sec (2 hr) Here we see typical grain boundary nucleation of ferrite. as indicated by the TTT diagram to the right.

Austenitized at 860°C: 50 µ m 705°C t=7200 sec 650°C t=150 sec Below the A1.Proeutectoid ferrite Steel: 0.55wt%C. Notice the dramatic increase in transformation rate. the amount of proeutectoid decreases with decreasing isothermal hold temperature. 550°C t=15 sec 500°C t=5 sec .

55wt%C. ferrite “nucleates” and grows on the undissolved ferrite. 650°C t=150 sec For the large grain size.Proeutectoid ferrite Steel: 0. new GBAs are nucleated. resulting in an irregular structure. For large austenite grains. . Austenitized at 730°C (partial) ~71% austenite Normal Grain Size Large Grain Size 10 µ m 40 µ m Water quenched 650°C Water quenched 650°C 550°C 500°C 500°C For small austenite grains. the ferrite forms an almost continuous network. rather than nucleating new GBAs.

0.25 wt% C 0.4 wt% C The amount of ferrite formed decreases with increasing carbon content.Proeutectoid ferrite 705°C 650°C 0.6 wt% C The ferrite morphology also changes with carbon content.15 wt% C 0. .

Proeutectoid ferrite .

Austenitized at 1150°C Transformed isothermally at 600°C. .Proeutectoid ferrite 0.25 wt% C. Transformed at 5°C/min.

. Small amounts of undissolved ferrite have little effect on subsequent decomposition.Undissolved ferrite and “degenerate” pearlite Austenitized just above the A1 Austenitized just below the A3 Large amounts of undissolved ferrite affect the subsequent decomposition.

Degenerate pearlite .


25 wt% C 675°C 625°C 600°C 500°C .Pearlite and Bainite 0.