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GSM Fundamentals- Part 2

June 30, 2018 By Santosh Kumar


GSM Foundation Course
• Course Content
 Revision for Channels from Part 1
 Paging & Performance check
 Principal of Cellular Communication
 Frequency Planning
 GSM Network Components
 GSM Terrestrial Interfaces
 Basic GSM Processes
 Radio Interface Optimization, Supplementary services
 Site Selection
 Repeaters

June 30, 2018 By Santosh Kumar


Logical Channels on Air interface
LOGICAL
CHANNELS

COMMON DEDICATED
CHANNELS CHANNELS

BROADCAST COMMON DEDICATED TRAFFIC


CHANNELS CONTROL CONTROL CHANNELS
CHANNELS CHANNELS

FCCH SCH BCCH SDCCH SACCH FACCH

PCH RACH AGCH TCH/F TCH/H TCH/EFR

June 30, 2018 By Santosh Kumar


GSM Channels
GSM Channels

Traffic Channels Control Channels


(TCHs)

Broadcast Common Control Dedicated Control


Channels Channels Channels
(BCHs) (CCCHs) (DCCHs)

(down uplink)
Full Half
rate rate Downlink Downlink Uplink

Fast Slow

TCH /F TCH /H FCCH SCH BCCH PCH AGCH CBCH RACH SDCCH FACCH SACCH
Traffic Multiframing Signaling Multiframing Traffic Multiframing

June 30, 2018 By Santosh Kumar


The Logical Channels on Radio Interface
TS 0123456 7

BTS MS
FCCH TCH
Frequency correction Traffic (speech-data)
SCH FACCH
Synchronization Associated Signaling
BCCH
Broadcast control
RACH Radio Measurement + SMS
SACCH
Access request SDCCH
Dedicated Signaling
PCH
Subscriber paging CBCH
Broadcast info
AGCH
Answer to Access request
FCCH
CBCH
Broadcast info SCH
M.S. Pre-synchronization
SDCCH
Dedicated Signaling BCCH
SACCH
Sys InFo 5, 6 + SMS RACH
Access request
PCH
Traffic (speech data) Subscriber paging
TCH
AGCH
Associated Signaling Answer to Access request
FACCH

June 30, 2018 By Santosh Kumar


Logical Channel Description (1/2)
SACCH MESSAGES
TCH MESSAGES
Measures:
- power level of the communication
• Speech
- quality level of the communication
• Data
- level on the beacon frequency of the
neighboring cells
• Timing Advance

• Power Control
FACCH MESSAGES
• SMS
• Connection establishment from SDCCH
to TCH
SDCCH MESSAGES • End validation of a SDCCH-TCH
commutation
• Request for a SDCCH assignment
• Characteristics of the future used BS
• Request for the end of channel after handover
assignment
• Connection establishment to BS after
• Order of commutation from SDCCH to handover
TCH
• Validation of an handover
• SMS

June 30, 2018 By Santosh Kumar


Logical Channel Description (2/2)
FCCH MESSAGES AGCH MESSAGES

• no message is sent (all bits 0) • For dedicated channel assignment:


- frequency number
- slot number
- frequency hopping description
SCH MESSAGES
- Timing Advance (1st estimation)
• Frame Number - MS identification
• Base Station Identity Code (BSIC)
CBCH MESSAGES

BCCH MESSAGES • Specific information


(weather, road information
• System Information type 1, 2, 2bis,
2ter, 3, 4, 7, 8
(idle mode) RACH MESSAGES

• Service request:
- emergency call
PCH MESSAGES - answer to an incoming call
- outgoing call
• messages containing a mobile - short message
identity for a call, a short message - call re-establishment
or an authentication - inscription

June 30, 2018 By Santosh Kumar


Paging
 Paging is process by which Mobile receives incoming calls
 Mobile has to monitor the paging channel to receive paging messages
 Mobile will not monitor all paging channels, it will monitor the channel specific
to its CCCH_Group and Paging Group

CCCH_ GROUP

 BCCH defines the number of PCHN ( timeslots ) supporting CCCH


 CCCH will have the same structure on all allocated timeslots ( 9 blocks )
 Each PCHN supporting CCCH is alloted a CCCH_Group No ( range : 0 .. 3 )
 Each CCCH_Group carries its own group of Mobiles.
 Mobiles will listen to paging messages and send RACH's only in their specific group

By Santosh
June 30, 2018
Kumar
Major Issues that affect Paging Performance
• SMSC Capacity Utilization
SMSC • Page Time Out

• A Interface( SS7) Signaling Load


Example of
• Page Time Out smart
MSC • VLR Subscriber Capacity Network --
• BHCA ( SMS & Voice) Philippines
A - Interface

• BCSU Processor Overload – Lower/Upper Limit Issues


BSC • BSC Hardware Utilization

LAPD (Abis) Interface


• LAPD Load – Against the Signaling Link Used ( 16/32/64Kbps)
• Paging Load ( High Page Volume) Above Capacity Limits

LA - 1 LA - 2 • Paging Deletion in Cells


BTS BTS • RACH Collisions – Overload
BTS BTS
• Cell Reselection Strategy ( HYS - Specially in LA borders)
• Overshooting of Cells beyond the desired boundary
• Distant & Un-necessary neighbor relations
Air - Interface • Poor Coverage & Quality

MS
MS

Other than Capacity Issues, PAGE TIME OUT is the main reason that is to be
June 30, 2018 analyzed
By Santosh Kumar
June 30, 2018 By Santosh Kumar
Cellular Communication
• A cellular system links Mobile subscribers to Public
Telephone System or to another Mobile subscribers.

• It removes the fixed wiring used in a traditional


telephone installation.

• Mobile subscriber is able to move around, perhaps can


travel in a vehicle or on foot & still make & receive call.

June 30, 2018 By Santosh Kumar


Advantage of Cellular Communication

• Mobility
• Flexibility
• Convergence
• Greater QOS
• Network Expansion
• Revenue/Profit
June 30, 2018 By Santosh Kumar
WHAT IS CELLULAR TELEPHONY ?

CONSIDERATIONS -

FREQUENCY
Base Station

SUBSCRIBER Base Station


DENSITY Base Station

COVERAGE Base Station

Base Station
Base Station
The Cell
• Cellular Radio involves dividing a large service area into
regions called “cells.”
• Each cell has the equipment to switch, transmit and
receive calls.
• Cells - Reduce the need of High powered transmission
• Cells - Conventionally regarded as being hexagonal, but
in reality they are irregularly shaped.
• Cell shape is determined by the nature of the
surrounding area e.g. Hills , tall building etc.

June 30, 2018 By Santosh Kumar


The CELL

 What is a cell ?

A cell is a certain area that


can be reached with one
transceiver

or
A small collection of BTS
transceivers on different
channels at a single base
site.

The hexagonal-shaped communication cells are


artificial & are generated to simplify the planning &
design of a cellular network.
June 30, 2018 By Santosh Kumar
Coverage & Capacity
• Coverage
– Percentage of the geographical area covered by
cellular service where mobile telephony is available

• Capacity -
– Number of calls that can be handled in a certain area
within a certain period of time.
– Capacity can also refer to the probability that users
will be denied access to a system due to the simple
unavailability of radio channels.

June 30, 2018 By Santosh Kumar


Cells

June 30, 2018 By Santosh Kumar


Cell Size
• Large Cells • Small Cells

• 35 Km • Near about 1 KM
• Remote Areas • Urban Areas
• High Transmission Power • Low Transmission Power
• Few subscribers • Many Subscribers

June 30, 2018 By Santosh Kumar


MICRO CELL
Below Rooftop
~ Railway Platforms, Airports,
~ Busy Shopping Bazaar etc.

Low Tx Power
~ 1 Watt max.

Limited Coverage
~ 200m - 500m

Hotspot Solution

Special Algorithms for HO


June 30, 2018 By Santosh Kumar
PICO CELLS
Inside offices, Buildings

Very Low Tx Power


~ Less than 1 Watt

Limited Coverage
~ 50 -100m

Capacity Solution

Special Algorithms for HO


Pico Cell

June 30, 2018 By Santosh Kumar


GSM - IN CELLULAR TELEPHONY
• Each Cell in the Cellular Network consists of one
or more RF carriers.
• An RF carrier is a pair of radio frequencies
– One used in upward direction by MS - Uplink
– Other used in downward direction by BTS - Downlink
– The transmit and receive frequencies are separated by
a gap of 45 MHz in GSM of 75 MHz in DCS.
• There are 124 carries in GSM Band. With each
carrier carrying 7 timeslots, only 124 x 7 = 868
calls can be made!
• Frequency Reuse is the solution
June 30, 2018 By Santosh Kumar
Uplink-Downlink

Downlink = 935 to 960 MHz

BTS Tx MS Rx
dl

Uplink = 890 to 915 MHz

BTS Rx MS Tx
ul
June 30, 2018 By Santosh Kumar
Frequency & ARFCN
Ful(n) = 890.0 + (0.2) *n MHz

Fdl(n) = Ful + 45 MHz

where n =ARFCN ; 1  n  124

June 30, 2018 By Santosh Kumar


FREQUENCY
PLANNING

June 30, 2018 By Santosh Kumar


INTRODUCTION
The objective of a cellular system is to provide quality communication to
the maximum number of users in a defined area.
The number of users supported by the system can be increased by using
more frequencies.
Frequency resources are however always limited.
Hence RF Planning engineers are required to maximise spectrum
efficiency.
In order to accommodate a maximum number of subscribers per network,
the available frequencies need to be reused as often as possible.
This creates interference towards other cells, which have detrimental
impact to the link quality.
Finding the optimum compromise between dense re-use and least
interference is the objective of frequency planning.
June 30, 2018 By Santosh Kumar
INTRODUCTION
The system design and planning of the system has to be done so as to
reuse the frequencies as often as possible while keeping the co-
channel and adjacent channel interference within acceptable limits.
Also a minimum received signal level has to be provided throughout the
coverage area of the network.
Frequency planning can be done
Manually by skilled expert RF Engineers.
With powerful planning tool having the option of automated frequency
planning.

June 30, 2018 By Santosh Kumar


FREQUENCY PLANNING STEPS
The steps to be followed in manual frequency planning are
– Calculating the frequency reuse distance theoratically.
– Determining the cell repeat pattern
– Planning the frequency groups.
– Inputting the planned frequency into the planning tool.
– Generating the C/I and C/A plots and checking out the results.
– Rectifying the fault areas.

June 30, 2018 By Santosh Kumar


FREQUENCY PLANNING STEPS
Determining the cell repeat pattern
Frequencies have to be reused at different cells throughout the network to
maximise capacity.
The distance cells using the same set of frequencies is called the
frequency reuse distance.
This reuse distance depends on the number of frequency reuse groups N.
Once N has been determined every Nth cell will be assigned the same
frequencies.
Also a minimum received signal level has to be provided throughout the
coverage area of the network.
The cell repeat pattern is dependent on the frequency spectrum available,
the traffic required and most important on the way the network is
planned.
Generally 7/21 or 7 site repeat pattern and 4 site repeat patterns are used.

June 30, 2018 By Santosh Kumar


FREQUENCY PLANNING STEPS
Cell reuse pattern
The distribution of the C/I ratio desired in a system determines the number
of frequency groups, F, which may be used.
If we have N carrier frequencies then
No of carriers / group = N/F
Since the number of frequency groups are fixed, a smaller number of
frequency groups(F) results in more carriers per set and per cell.
Hence a reduction in the number of frequency groups would allow each
site to carry more traffic.
However decreasing the number of frequency groups and reducing the
frequency reuse distance results in lower average C/I distribution in
the system.
Generally 7/21 and 4/12 reuse patterns are used.

June 30, 2018 By Santosh Kumar


FREQUENCY PLANNING STEPS
7/21 Cell reuse pattern
Say we have 42 frequencies and we require 2 carriers per site then we
can use 7 site repeat pattern.
Hence a cluster will be formed of 7 sites.
The frequencies for manual frequency planning for a cluster size of 7 are
arranged a s shown below

A1 B1 C1 D1 E1 F1 G1 A2 B2 C2 D2 E2 F2 G2 A3 B3 C3 D3 E3 F3 G3
Carrier1 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21
Carrier2 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42

June 30, 2018 By Santosh Kumar


FREQUENCY PLANNING
STEPS
7/21 Cell reuse pattern

G1

G1 B1 F1
G3 G2

B1 F1 B3 B2 A1 F2
G3 G2 F3

C1 E1
B3 B2 A1 F3 F2 A3 A2

E1 C2 D1 E3 E2
C1 C3
A3 A2

C2 D1 E3 E2 D3 D2
C3

D3 D2

June 30, 2018 By Santosh Kumar


FREQUENCY PLANNING
STEPS
4/12 Cell reuse pattern
Say we have 48 frequencies and we require 4 carriers per site then we
can use 4 site repeat pattern.
Hence a cluster will be formed of 4 sites.
The frequencies for manual frequency planning for a cluster size of 4 are
arranged a s shown below

A1 B1 C1 D1 A2 B2 C2 D2 A3 B3 C3 D3
Carrier1 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12
Carrier2 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24
Carrier3 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36
Carrier4 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48

June 30, 2018 By Santosh Kumar


FREQUENCY PLANNING
STEPS
4/12 Cell reuse pattern

B1 C1

D3 B3 B2 A1 C2 B1
C3

C1 D3 B3 B2
D1 D2 A3 A2

A1 C2 B1 C1
C3 D1 D2

A3 D3 B3 B2 A1 C2
A2 C3

C1 B1
B1 D1 D2 A3 A2

C2 B3 B2
B3 B2 C3

June 30, 2018 By Santosh Kumar


June 30, 2018 By Santosh Kumar
GSM NETWORK ELEMENTS
VLR HLR
EC
PSTN AUC
MSC

IWF EIR

Network Switching System

ME TRAU BSC
SIM
BTS
BSS
MS
June 30, 2018 By Santosh Kumar
GSM Network Components
• Mobile Station consists of two parts-
– Mobile Equipment (ME)
– Subscriber Identity Module (SIM)
• ME
– Hardware e.g. Telephone, Fax Machine,
Computer.
• SIM
– Smart Card which plugs into the ME.
June 30, 2018 By Santosh Kumar
Mobile Equipment (ME)
• ME are of three types-

– Vehicle Mounted

– Portable Mobile Unit

– Hand portable Unit

• ME’s have distinct features- Classmarks sent in


initial message to Network.

June 30, 2018 By Santosh Kumar


ME (Classmark Information)
• Revision Level
– Phase of the GSM specs ME comply with.
• RF Power Capability
– Max power ME is able to Transmit.
• Ciphering Algorithm Used
– Presently A5
– Phase 2 specifies Algorithms A5/0 to A5/7.
• Frequency Capability
• SMS Capability

June 30, 2018 By Santosh Kumar


Mobile Equipment
Class Power O/p
1 20 W
2 8W
3 5W
4 2W
5 0.8 W Typical
Settings

June 30, 2018 By Santosh Kumar


SIM
 Subscriber Interface Identity --------------
Module --------------

The SIM stores


– Subscriber Parameters Full Size SIM Card

– Personal Data for identifying


Small SIM
Subscriber to the Network.
– IMSI,, MSISDN, PIN, PUK, Ki,
--------------
--------------

A3, A8 (for Kc generation)


– Space reserved for TMSI & LAI
SIM - Internal Structure
Basic Operating System
16 to 24 kB
EEPROM ROM
User Data 16 kB
I/O
8
Working Area for CPU
CPU RAM 256 to 512 bytes

June 30, 2018 By Santosh Kumar


SIM(IMSI)
• IMSI(International Mobile Subscriber Identity)
– Transmitted over Air Interface on initialization
– Permanently stored on SIM card
– 15 digit Decimal
MCC (3) MNC (2) MSIC (10)

June 30, 2018 By Santosh Kumar


SIM (LAI)
• LAI (Location Area Identity)
MCC MNC LAC CI

– MCC 3 digit number (BCD), two Octets ( A & B)


– MNC 2 digit number (BCD), one Octet
– LAC 3 digit number (Binary) , two Octets
0-65535
– CI 5 digit number (Binary) , two Octets
0-65535
June 30, 2018 By Santosh Kumar
SIM
• MSISDN
– 10 digit number to which a subscriber is being
called.
• PIN (Personal Identification Number)
– Four digit PIN
– An internal security to Protect the SIM from illegal
use.
– Card blocks itself after three wrong entries
• PUK (Personal Unblocking Key)
– 8 digit code to unblock the SIM Card
• Ki (Authentication Key), A3 & A8 Algorithms

June 30, 2018 By Santosh Kumar


SIM (TMSI)
• Temporary Mobile Subscriber Identity
– Periodically changed by the System Management on
instances like location update etc.
• Reason for use of TMSI
– To prevent a possible intruder from identifying GSM
users, TMSI is used
• Management
– Assignment, Administration & Updating is performed
by VLR.

June 30, 2018 By Santosh Kumar


Transcoder
• Converts 64 Kbps PCM circuits from MSC to 16
Kbps BSS circuits.

• Each 30 channel 2 Mbps PCM link can carry


120 GSM - specified voice channels.

June 30, 2018 By Santosh Kumar


Transcoder

MSC BSS

30 Channel PCM
1234
1 2 3 4
XCDR
120 GSM TCH

Transcoder Information from FOUR calls


(4x16 KBPS put into ONE 64 KBPS timeslot
June 30, 2018 By Santosh Kumar
June 30, 2018 By Santosh Kumar
Base Station System (BSS)

• BSS (Base Station System)


Network
– BSC (Base Site Controller) Switching
– BTS (Base Transceiver Station) System
(NSS)
– XCDR (Transcoder)
XCDR

BSC

BTS
June 30, 2018 By Santosh Kumar
BSS Configuration

• Collocated BTS

• Remote BTS

• Daisy Chain BTS

• Star Configuration

• Loop Configuration

June 30, 2018 By Santosh Kumar


Daisy Chain Configuration

BSC

All BTS on 1 E1
BTS

BTS

BTS
June 30, 2018 By Santosh Kumar
Star Configuration
BTS

BTS BSC BTS

BTS

June 30, 2018 By Santosh Kumar


Loop Configuration
BTS

BTS BSC BTS


Loop Configuration

BTS

June 30, 2018 By Santosh Kumar


Network Switching System(NSS)
• NSS (Network Switching System)
– MSC (Mobile Switching Centre)
– HLR (Home Location Register)
– VLR (Visitor Location Register)
– EIR (Equipment Identity Register)
– AUC (Authentication Centre)
– IWF (Interworking Function)
– EC (Echo Canceller)

June 30, 2018 By Santosh Kumar


MOBILE SWITCHING CENTRE

June 30, 2018 By Santosh Kumar


GSM Network Component
• MSC
– Call Switching
– Operation & Management Support
– Internetwork Interworking
– Collects call billing data

• Gateway MSC
– MSC which provides interface between PSTN & BSS’s
in the GSM Network.
June 30, 2018 By Santosh Kumar
Home Location Register (HLR)
• Reference database for the Subscriber profiles-
– Subscriber ID (IMSI & MSISDN)
– Current VLR Address
– Supplementary Services subscribed
– Supplementary Service Information
– Subscriber Status (Registered/deregistered)
– Authentication Key and AUC functionality
– TMSI
– MSRN

June 30, 2018 By Santosh Kumar


Visitor Location Register (VLR)
• Temporary Data, which exists as long as the
subscriber is active in a particular Coverage area.
• Contains the following-
– Mobile Status (Busy/ Free/ No Answer/etc.)
– Location Area Identity (LAI)
– TMSI
– MSRN (Mobile Station Roaming Number)

June 30, 2018 By Santosh Kumar


Equipment Identity Register (EIR)
• Contains Database for validating IMEI

– White List (valid ME)

– Black List (Stolen ME)

– Grey List (Faulty ME)

June 30, 2018 By Santosh Kumar


Inter Working Function
• Provides function to enable the GSM System to
interface with Public/Private Data Networks.
• The basic feature of the IWF are
– Rate Conversion
– Protocol adaptation

• IWF incorporates Modem Bank.


e.g. GSM DTE PSTN DTE
IWF Analogue Modem

June 30, 2018 By Santosh Kumar


Echo Canceller
• Echo is apparent only in Mobile - Land
conversation & is generated at the 2 wire to 4
wire interface.
• To avoid it, Echo Canceller (EC) is used.
– Echo is irritating to MS Subscriber
– Total Round Trip delay of 180 ms in the GSM system
– EC is placed on the PSTN side of the Switch
– Cancellation up to 68 ms with EC

June 30, 2018 By Santosh Kumar


Operation & Maintenance Centre
• Event & Alarm Management

• Fault Management

• Performance Management

• Configuration Management

• Security Management

June 30, 2018 By Santosh Kumar


Operation & Maintenance Centre
o The OMC has access to the (G)MSC, BSC.
o Handles error messages being reported from
the Network
o Controls the traffic load of the BSC, and the
BTS.
NETWORK MANAGEMENT CENTRE

o NETWORK MANAGEMENT CENTRE (NMC)


– Offers Hierarchical Regionalized Network
Management of a complete GSM system.

• Functionality of the NMC


• Monitors Nodes on the Network
• Monitors Network Element Statistics
MMI RAM>
• Monitors OMC regions & provides MMI RAM>
information to OMC staff MMI RAM>

• Enables Long Term Planning for entire


Network
NETWORK MANAGEMENT CENTRE
NMC

OMC OMC

OMC

REGION 3
REGION 2
REGION 1

NETWORK

June 30, 2018 By Santosh Kumar


GSM Terrestrial Interfaces

Broadly classified into two types of interfaces-

• Standard Interfaces

– 2 Mbps Trunks (E1)

– Signalling System No. 7 SS7 ( CCS7)

– X.25 (Packet Switched Mode)

• GSM Interfaces

June 30, 2018 By Santosh Kumar


GSM Interfaces
• Um MS - BTS
• Abis BTS - BSC
• A BSC - MSC
• B MSC - VLR
• C MSC - HLR
• D VLR - HLR
• E MSC - MSC
• F MSC - EIR
• G VLR - VLR
• H HLR - AUC
June 30, 2018 By Santosh Kumar
June 30, 2018 By Santosh Kumar
Other Basic Processes
• AUTHENTICATION

• CIPHERING

• REGISTRATION

• ROAMING

June 30, 2018 By Santosh Kumar


AUTHENTICATION ALGORITHM

HLR Ki SRES
AUTH.ALGORITHMS
NSS
AUC A3 COMPARE
RAND

AIR INTERFACE
RAND SRES

MS SIM Ki
AUTH. ALGORITHMS

MS A3
June 30, 2018 By Santosh Kumar
Ciphering
• Data protection is required on air interface.
• A5 algorithm is used.
• A specific key called Ciphering Key (Kc), is
generated from RAND and A8 algorithm.
• A8 is on the SIM.
Ki RAND

A8

Kc
June 30, 2018 By Santosh Kumar
Ciphering

Kc Kc

Ciphered
Data A5 A5 Data
Data

June 30, 2018 By Santosh Kumar


ROAMING

PSTN
MSC

HLR
INDIA
ME
MSC

VLR

UK
ME
June 30, 2018 By Santosh Kumar
ROAMING
o The mobile roams to another country (UK) and requests a Location
Update when switched ‘ON’.
o The VLR (UK) informs the home HLR (India) of the mobile’s new
location (UK).
o The HLR updates its location information and sends the subscriber
information to the VLR (UK).
o The HLR requests the subscriber information be removed from the VLR
(India).
o The VLR (India) acknowledges, and removes the subscriber
information from its database.
o After the mobile’s registration is completed in UK’s MSC/VLR, the
mobile is able to use network services (MOC, MTC etc.)

June 30, 2018 By Santosh Kumar


June 30, 2018 By Santosh Kumar
Radio Interface Optimization
• Transmission Timing
• Power Control
• VAD and DTX
• Multipath Fading
• Equalization
• Diversity
• Frequency Hopping
June 30, 2018 By Santosh Kumar
THREE TIMESLOT OFFSET

0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Mobile Rx

3 TS 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Mobile Tx
Offset

June 30, 2018 By Santosh Kumar


TIMING ADVANCE

01234567 012345670123456701234567012345 67

BURST arrives
BURST sent LATE
early

BURST arrives
T = 3.69S to 233S IN TIME

Cell Radius = 35km


June 30, 2018 By Santosh Kumar
Power Control

•In steps of 2dB


•Enhances Battery Life
•Reduces Interference

13 dBm (min)

33 dBm (max)

Cell Radius = 35km


June 30, 2018 By Santosh Kumar
Dis-Continuos Transmission

012345 6 7 012345 6 7 012345 6 7 012345 6 7 012345 6 7

VAD - Voice Activity Detection


•MS identifies presence/ absence of speech
•Generates Comfort noise
DTX - Dis-Continuous Transmission
•MS does not TX during silence period

June 30, 2018 By Santosh Kumar


MULTI-PATH PROPAGATION

June 30, 2018 By Santosh Kumar


DIVERSITY

Diversity Receiver

Approx. 10 Wavelengths
3.3 meters
June 30, 2018 By Santosh Kumar
FREQUENCY HOPPING

FN

F4

F3
FREQUENCY

F2

F1
F0
June 30, 2018 By Santosh Kumar TIME
FREQUENCY HOPPING
Mobile Activity
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Rx1
Mobile Rx

0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Rx2

6 7 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 0 1 2 3 4 5 Tx1
Mobile Tx

6 7 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 0 1 2 3 4 5 Tx2

MONITORING Other Cell


June 30, 2018 By Santosh Kumar
June 30, 2018 By Santosh Kumar
Speech Services
• Telephony (13 kbps full rate)
• Emergency Call (with/without SIM card in the Mobile
Station)
• Short Message Services (SMS)
• Point to Point (128 Byte Max.)
• Cell Broadcast(75 bytes Max.)
• Dual Personal and Business Numbers.
– Allows calls to be made and billed, either to business or
personal numbers.

June 30, 2018 By Santosh Kumar


Supplementary Service - Call Waiting
Call in Progress

PSTN Phone

June 30, 2018 By Santosh Kumar


Supplementary Services - Call Hold
1. Call in Progress

2. Put on Hold

3. Calls another Mobile

June 30, 2018 By Santosh Kumar


Supplementary Services - Call Forwarding
Voice Mail System

Divert if
•All Calls
•Busy
Another •Not Reachable
PSTN Mobile •No Answer
Phone

Incoming Call
June 30, 2018 By Santosh Kumar
Supplementary Services
• Calling Line Identification
– Present
– Absent
• Connect Line Identification
– Present
– Absent
• Closed User Group - CUG
– Only incoming
– Only outgoing
• Operator Controlled Barring
June 30, 2018 By Santosh Kumar
Short Message Service

SMSC

MSC

June 30, 2018


BTS
By Santosh Kumar
Short Message Service

SMSC
Point to Point

Point to Multipoint
MSC

June 30, 2018


BTS
By Santosh Kumar
PRE - PAID SYSTEM
• SIM BASED
– Data on SIM
– Decrements with use
– Over the air charging !!??

• NETWORK BASED

– Data secure on with the network


– Over the air re-charging
– Features
• Inquiry
• Warnings …..

June 30, 2018 By Santosh Kumar


SITE SELECTION

June 30, 2018 By Santosh Kumar


INTRODUCTION
Site Location
Proper site location determines usefulness of its cells.
Site are expensive and have to be chosen carefully.
The planner needs to visit each and every site.

Good Site Selection


We need to understand various factors we must take into account to
ensure that the selected site is good.
Simple way is to ask yourself three questions
1) Why am I putting this site ?
2) Will this selected site serve that purpose ?
3) Are there any possible problems that might arise if i select this site.
If yes can I solve or avoid those problems ?

June 30, 2018 By Santosh Kumar


BAD SITE SELECTION
Hilltop locations for a BTS site should be avoided as they cause
Uncontrolled interference
Interleaved coverage
Awkward HO behaviours
But are good for microwave links
Uncontrolled interference

Desired cell boundary

Interleaved coverage area


weak own signal, strong foreign signal
June 30, 2018 By Santosh Kumar
GOOD SITE SELECTION
Sites off hilltop locations are preferable for a BTS site as
– hills can be used to separate cells
– interference can be easily controlled
– minimum overlapping will result
– can face problems for microwave links

Desired cell boundary

June 30, 2018 By Santosh Kumar


SITE SELECTION CRITERIA
Radio criteria for site selection
Good view in the main beam direction
No surrounding nearby high obstacle
Good visibilty of terrain
Room for antenna mounting
LOS to the two microwave site and if possible to the BSC
Short cabling distance

Non-radio criteria
Space for equipment
Availaibilty of lease lines or microwave links
Power supply
Access restrictions
Rental costs
Ease of acquisition

June 30, 2018 By Santosh Kumar


REPEATERS

June 30, 2018 By Santosh Kumar


REPEATERS
INTRODUCTION Donor side antenna Mobile side antenna

Repeater receives
Donor signal at Repeater amplifies
~ -90dBm the signal and
rebroadcasts the
signal

Donor Cell

Poor Coverage area

Repeater units are designed to receive signals from a donor site, amplify
and rebroadcast the donor sites signals into poor coverage areas or to
extend the coverage range of the donor site.
These repeater are bi-directional and do not translate frequency and
subsequently are limited in output power and gain.
Repeaters provide between 50 to 80 dB of gain.
June 30, 2018 By Santosh Kumar
REPEATERS
INTRODUCTION
There are two types of repeater band selective and channel selective.
Band selective repeater amplifies a band of frequency. Hence it
amplifies any frequency that falls within its band.
Channel selective repeater allows selection of a number of individual
channels to amplify and rebroadcast.
Typically a channel selective repeater allows selection of 2 to 4
channels.
If the GSM900 or DCS1800 network incorporates frequency hopping,
then only band selective repeaters should be used.

June 30, 2018 By Santosh Kumar


Thank You

June 30, 2018 By Santosh Kumar