This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?
The Earth has a gravitational field that exerts a force on objects both in and around it
Gravity and Weight on Other Planets
Mass, Weight and Gravity
F = m.g
Weight is a measurement of the force on an object caused by gravity trying to pull the object down. Weight is a Vector quantity measured in Newtons. Gravity is an attractive force. Mass is the amount of matter contained inside an object
More Information and an activity on Weight Force
Weight
Weight is a measurement of the force on a object caused by gravity trying to pull the object down. Mars has less gravity than Earth. Therefore if you were on Mars you'd weigh less because the force of gravity wouldn't be as strong as it is here on Earth. Does this mean you would suddenly be thinner on Mars? No. You would have the same amount of mass as you do on Earth. (Mass is the amount of stuff inside an object.)
Gravity
Gravity is an attractive force. This doesn't mean it's pretty. What "attractive" means is that an object's gravity pulls other objects toward it. The Earth's gravity naturally pulls us, and everything else, toward the centre of the planet, which keeps us from drifting off into space. The Earth isn't the only thing that has gravity. In fact, every single object in the universe has gravity. The tables you're sitting at have gravity. They are pulling you towards them. You have gravity, and you are pulling the tables towards you. We can't see or feel these things happening because people and tables have a such a small mass that the effects of gravity cannot be seen.
Mass
Mass is the amount of stuff contained inside an object. It takes a lot of mass to make a lot of gravity. The Earth has a lot of mass, so it has a lot of gravity. The moon's gravity is about 1/6 the amount of the Earth's because the moon has less mass than the Earth. You've probably seen video footage of astronauts walking on the moon. They seem to float between each step. Remember that the moon has about 1/6 the amount of gravity that the Earth has? Well, if you went to the moon, you'd weigh less than you do here on Earth. On the moon your mass would be the same  there is no less of you on the moon. But your weight is different because the moon's gravity is different.
Calculating Gravity
Sir Isaac Newton was the man that brought the heavens down to Earth. Remember Newton¶s 3rd Law ³Every action has an equal and opposite reaction´ Therefore the force of gravity works in both ways. That is, you are pulled down by gravity, but, at the same time you are pulling the earth up towards you. So from Newton¶s work it is possible to calculate the Force of Gravity between two objects.
Fgravity
m1m2 !G 2 r
The Law of Universal Gravitation
Fgravity
m1m2 !G 2 r
Fg=Force in Newtons G = Gravitational Constant m1= mass of object 1 in kg m2 = mass of object 2 in kg r = radius or distance between the centre of the two objects.
Calculating the Force between two objects.
Problem Given the following data determine the magnitude of the gravitational attraction between: Answers a) The Earth and the Moon a) 1.98 x 1020N b) The Earth and the Sun
b)3.52 x 1022N
Mass of Earth = 5.97 x 1024kg So even though the Sun Mass of the Moon = 7.35 x 1022kg is further away the Force of attraction is Mass of the Sun = 1.99 x 1030kg Average EarthMoon distance = 3.84 x 108m greater than the moon. Average EarthSun distance = 1.50 x 1011m N.B. The Earth Sun Distance is also a unit of measure for space. 1 AU (Astronomical Unit) = 1.50 x 1011m 2 AU therefore would be 2 x 1.50 x 1011m = 3.0 x 1011m
Calculating Gravity on other Planets.
Remember Weight is dependent upon the gravity of a planet. We can calculate the Gravity on a planet if we know the planet¶s Mass in kg and it¶s mean radius in m. We can use the following formula to calculate it:
Gravity planet ! G
m planet rplanet
Remember the Gravitational constant = 6.67x1011 Nm2/kg2
Calculating it for Earth
ravity planet !
planet
r 2 planet
Gravity = 6.67x1011x 5.98x1024 (6.37x106)2 = 9.83 m/s2
Now it is your turn to calculate it for each planet in our solar system.
Gravity on the Planets
Planet Earth The Moon Mars Jupiter Pluto Mercury Venus Saturn Uranus Neptune Mass(kg) 5.98 x1024 7.36 x1022 6.42 x1023 1.90 x1027 1.4 x1022 3.18 x1023 4.88 x1024 5.68 x1026 8.68 x1025 1.03 x1026 Mean Radius (m) 6.37 x106 1.74 x106 3.37 x106 6.99 x107 1.5 x106 2.43 x106 6.06 x106 5.85 x107 2.33 x109 2.21 x107 Acceleration due to Gravity (m/s/s) 9.8 1.6 3.7 24.8 0.7
Your Weight on other planets
1. Estimate your mass. 2. Record your mass in the chart below. Your mass is your weight on Earth. 3. Multiply your mass times the gravity in each row to figure out your weight at each location. 4. Where do you weigh the most? Where do you weigh the least? To calculate your weight: mass x gravity = weight
Location Earth Earth's moon Venus Mars Mercury Jupiter Saturn Uranus Neptune Pluto
Mass
Gravity =9.8 =0.17 x 9.8 =0.90x9.8 =0.38x9.8 =0.38x9.8 =2.36x9.8 =0.92x9.8 =0.89x9.8 =1.13x9.8 =0.07x9.8
Weight
Let·s Investigate Acceleration due to Gravity
First Hand Investigation ± Determine a value for gravity using pendulum motion. Handout
Gravity and Potential Energy
When we raise something off the ground we are giving it energy because if we drop it then it will fall to the ground. Therefore to raise the item we have to do work to raise it off the ground. Essentially we are working against gravity to lift the object. We must remember however that we are only observing gravity on the surface of the earth. What about when we are a long way from Earth? Does it affect us the same?
Earth Gee gravity feels strong here I can hardly feel gravity out here
Gravitational Fields
We can represent the gravity around an object with field lines. The field lines go in towards the centre of mass. The field on the surface of the Earth is straight down. E.g. in a room
Gravity and Work
As we have said to move something in a gravitational field we must do work or use Energy. Therefore our idea of
PE=mgh
is good but only when we are close to Earth. How could we define it for the entire Universe?
Gravity is Inversely Proportional
That means as an object moves away from a large object the force of gravity reduces. The faster we can go.
1 Gravity w 2 radius
Remember Newton·s Gravitational Force
W ! F vs s ! radius ! r W ! F vr
Fgravity
m1m2 !G 2 r
E potential
m1m2 ! G r
m1m2 W ! F vr ! G 2 vr r
Notice the negative sign, it will be explained in the next couple of slides.
Gravitational Potential Energy and Work Done.
The gravitational potential energy of an object at some point within a gravitational field is equivalent to the work done in moving the object from an infinite distance to that point. It can be shown mathematically that the gravitational energy, Ep , of an object with mass, m1 , a distance, r , from the centre of a planet of mass, m2 , is given by:
GPE Information from Zona Land
Total Energy
Total Energy = Potential Energy + Kinetic Energy
Therefore drawing graphs of both Ep and Ek would look like:
Graph of Gravitational Potential Energy
Earth
r
+
Ep
0
d

Graph of Kinetic Energy
Earth
r
+
Ek
0
d

GPE
Ep at suface
<
Ep at x
<
Ep at
Now Gravity is essentially zero at infinity so at x Ep is less so it must be a negative. Hence the negative sign in the formula.
Example Question
Question: A spacecraft is moved to a higher orbit. Use the concept of energy to explain why it slows down. Answer: The rocket moves away from the planet, so: Ep increases as the rocket moves further away Ek therefore decreases = loss of kinetic energy means rocket would slow down.
Another Problem
Using the following data determine the Gravitational Potential Energy of:
a) The moon within the Earth¶s gravitational field b) The Earth within the Sun¶s gravitational field
Mass of Earth = 5.97 x 1024kg Answers Mass of the Moon = 7.35 x 1022kg a) 7.62 x 1028 Joules 30kg Mass of the Sun = 1.99 x 10 Average EarthMoon distance = 3.84 x 108m b) 5.28 x 1033 Joules Average EarthSun distance = 1.50 x 1011m
The planets orbit at different speeds.
We can relate this to all the orbits of the planets around the sun. The closer the planet is to the Sun the faster its orbit, the greater its Kinetic Energy. The further away the slower the Kinetic Energy the greater the Potential Energy.
How fast do the planets orbit?
Planet Mercury Venus Earth Mars Jupiter Saturn Uranus Neptune Days to Orbit the Sun (0 d.p.) 88 225 365 687 4333 10759 30685 60190
Orbits of the inner planets
2. Many factors have to be taken into account to achieve a successful rocket launch, maintain a stable orbit and return to earth.
Objects fall towards earth.
At a given location on the earth and in the absence of air resistance, all objects fall with the same uniform acceleration. Thus, two objects of different sizes and weights, dropped from the same height, will hit the ground at the same time.
Information from http://thinkquest.org
Projectiles
An object is controlled by two independent motions. So an object projected horizontally will reach the ground in the same time as an object dropped vertically. No matter how large the horizontal velocity is, the downward pull of gravity is always the same.
Information from http://thinkquest.org
Before Galileo
This illustration reflects the general opinion before Galileo which followed largely Aristotelian lines but incorporating a later theory of "impetus" which maintained that an object shot from a cannon, for example, followed a straight line until it "lost its impetus," at which point it fell abruptly to the ground.
Galileo Projectiles follow a curved path.
Later it was realized that projectiles actually follow a curved path. Yet no one knew what that path was, until Galileo. There was yet another brilliant insight that led Galileo to his most astounding conclusion about projectile motion. First of all, he reasoned that a projectile is not only influenced by one motion, but by two. The motion that acts vertically is the force of gravity, and this pulls an object towards the earth at 9.8 meters per second. But while gravity is pulling the object down, the projectile is also moving forward, horizontally at the same time. And this horizontal motion is uniform and constant according to Galileo's principle of inertia.
HSC Physics looks at three types of Projectiles.
1. A projectile fired from the ground at a certain angle. 2. A projectile fired from a height horizontally. 3. A projectile fired at an angle from a height. We will only look at projectiles in two dimensions horizontally and vertically. y
x
The following slides show what each looks like.
Horizontally from a height
Horizontally from a height
At an angle from a height
u
Solving Problems for Projectile Motion
Projectile Motion Handout
Projectiles ² First Hand
Projectiles in the Sporting Arena.  Throwing a ball Computer Simulation  Projectile Fired from the ground Applet ± Projectile Motion
Projectile Motion Problems
± a) b) c) d)
Horizontal Problem
A coin is projected across a horizontal table with a constant speed of 1.5m/s. It leaves the edge of the table and follows a parabolic path to the ground 1.0m below. How long does it take to hit the ground? What is the vertical velocity just before the coin hits the ground? Calculate the velocity just before it hits the floor? How far away from the edge of the table does the coin hit the floor?
1.5m/s
Solution
A) All motion is in the same direction so we do not need to worry about vectors. Uv=0m/s, a=9.8, sv=1.0m Sv= uvt + ½ at2 1 = 0 + ½ (9.8)t2 t = 0.45 sec So, the time of flight = 0.45 seconds
Solution
b) sv=1.0m, uv = 0, a = 9.8m/s2 Vv2 = uv2 + 2as Vv2 = 0 + 2 x 9.8 x 1 Vv = 4.45 m/s c) Velocity is Resultant of horizontal and vertical final velocity.
1.5 m/s 4.45m/s A2 = b2 + c2 A2 = (1.5)2 + (4.45)2 A = 4.67m/s Resultant Velocity = 4.67m/s at 18.7 degrees Angle = tan1(1.5/4.45) = 18.7 degrees
Solution
d) Horizontal Displacement Important Uh = 1.5m/s, t=0.45s Acceleration acts only Sh = Uh x t on the vertical axis. = 1.5 x 0.45s = 0.675metres
1.5m/s
Therefore it does not affect any motion in the horizontal axis.
Homework
Answer the following questions: 1. A spacecraft is rising from the moon with a velocity of 20m/s when a bolt falls off. If the bolt takes 50.0s to reach the ground how high was the spacecraft? 2. On the planet Mars an astronaut throws a ball up at 10m/s.
a) b) c) d) How high does it go? How long does it take to reach this height? What is the time of flight? With what speed does it hit the ground?
3. During a visit to the Moon, an astronaut throws a rock vertically and it reaches a height of 20m.
a) With what speed was it thrown? b) How long did it take to reach 20m? c) At what times was the ball at 10m?
PROJECTILE MOTION LAB
PURPOSE: To study projectile motion under a "real" situation. PROCEDURE: Calibrate your ramp. Determine the velocity of the ball as it leaves the ramp when rolled from different starting points along the ramp. Use the projectile motion of the ball onto the table top for your calculations. You should calibrate many points, at least every 2 cm or even every cm. Note the letter of your ramp. After the ramp has been calibrated, it will be placed on a platform at a given height, H, and a cup will be placed on the floor at a given distance from the ramp, R. Your goal is to release the ball from the point your group decides along the ramp so that it will gain enough speed to just hit the cup.
SCORING: Hit on 1st try = 10 points Hit on 2nd try = 7 points Hit on 3rd try = 3 points
Newton·s Law of Universal Gravitation
In simplistic terms, what Newton said was that an object attracts every other object in the universe. The two factors that determine the force of the attraction are:  the mass of each of the two objects  the distances between their centres of mass. In mathematical terms, this is:
Click on Equation For more information
Universal Gravitation
F = force of attraction between objects G = universal gravitational constant (which is equal to 6.67 x 1011 N m2 kg2) m1 = mass of object 1 m2 = mass of object 2 d = distance between their centres of mass
The observed solar system at the time of Newton Sun Mercury Venus Earth Mars Jupiter Saturn
(all except Earth are named after Roman gods, because astrology was practiced in ancient Rome)
Three outer planets discovered later« Uranus (1781, Wm Herschel) Neptune (1846 Adams; LeVerrier) Pluto (1930, Tombaugh)
Isaac Newton Newton solved the premier scientific problem of his time  to explain the motion of the planets. To explain the motion of the planets, Newton developed three ideas: 1. The laws of motion 2. The theory of universal gravitation 3. Calculus, a new branch of mathematics
a!
F m
F!
Gm1m2 r2
³If I have been able to see farther than others it is because I stood on the shoulders of giants.´  Newton¶s letter to Robert Hooke, probably referring to Galileo and Kepler
Uniform Circular Motion
Centripetal acceleration
For an object in circular motion, the centripetal acceleration is a = v 2/r . (Christian Huygens)
Example. Determine the string tension if a mass of 5 kg is whirled around your head on the end of a string of length 1 m with period of revolution 0.5 s.
Answer : 790 N
Uniform Circular Motion  Orbit of Satellites
Forces involved in uniform circular motion ± including satellites Kepler¶s Laws Low Earth and geostationary orbits Orbital Decay of satellites
Forces and Uniform Circular Motion
Objects do not perform uniform circular motion unless they are subject to a centripetal force. This is a force that is always perpendicular to the velocity of the object. That force causes the moving object to continually change direction so that it follows a circular path. The centripetal force is always directed toward the centre of the circular motion. The source of the centripetal force for a range of circular motions is listed here.
Circular motion
Ball on a string whirled in a circle Car driving around a corner Satellite orbiting the Earth
Source of centripetal force
Tension in the string Friction between the tyres and the road Gravitational attraction between the Earth and the satellite
Three Ideas
Centripetal Acceleration is the rate of change of velocity or speed of an object as it travels in circular motion. Measured in ms2 Centripetal Force is the force that pulls an object towards the middle of it¶s circular motion. Gravity is the Centripetal force causing the motion of the planets. Centrifugal Force is the outwards push felt by an object as it undergoes circular motion. It is not a real force though.
You may feel a force push you outwards when you are on a merry go round. All it is however is the Inertia of the body, because the motion is always accelerating in a circle. You want to keep travelling in a straight line but holding on to the pole forces you to stay on and accelerates you towards the middle of the circle.
Centripetal Force
Using the idea of Centripetal Acceleration and Newton¶s Second Law F = m.a we are able to calculate the Force involved in keeping an object in uniform circular motion.
mv F! r
2
F = Force Newtons m = mass of object in kg v = velocity in m/s r = radius in m
Problem
A 200kg satellite is orbiting Earth with a height of 250km. It¶s orbital speed is 27 800km/h. Find the Force acting on it and its centripetal acceleration.
Height = 250km Radius Earth = 6380km Orbital Speed = 27800km/h
Solution
Data ± M = 200kg ± V = 27800km/h ± R = 6380km + 250km
Calculation
2
mv F! r
2
200 v 7722 Fc ! 6630000 So, Fc ! 1799 N towards the centre of Earth 7722 2 v2 Fc 1799 ac ! ! ! ! ! 9.0ms 2 r 6630000 m 200
Newton and the Apple Newton was inquisitive and it was why he was such a great scientist
Newton observed an apple and how gravity affected it on Earth. Some people say it hit him on the head and all of a sudden he knew how it worked. He asked himself: Did the same gravity go all the way to the moon?
Newton and the Moon
Newton asked himself: What if the Moon was always falling towards Earth but never actually got any closer? How could it do this? The apple when it fell always fell to Earth. What about if he threw the apple, what path did it take? A curved path like the projectiles. What if he threw the apple hard enough? He thought possibly if he threw it hard enough it would continue to curve towards Earth but never actually land, in effect it became a moon.
Now he could escape Earth
So if he threw the apple hard enough it would leave Earth. Could he throw an apple hard enough? No What could he use? He thought of using a huge cannon to fire a cannon ball fast enough that it may begin to orbit the Earth like the Moon did.
Applet for Newton¶s Mountain Cannon http://galileo.phys.virginia.edu/classes/109N/more_stuff/Applets/newt/newtmtn.html
Kepler·s Laws
Johannes Kepler, working with data painstakingly collected by Tycho Brahe without the aid of a telescope, developed three laws which described the motion of the planets across the sky. 1. The Law of Orbits: All planets move in elliptical orbits, with the sun at one focus.
2. The Law of Areas: A line that connects a planet to the "By the study of the orbit of Mars, we must either arrive at the secrets sun sweeps out equal areas in equal times.
of astronomy or forever remain in ignorance of them." 3. The Law of Periods: The square of the period of any  Johannes Kepler
planet is proportional to the cube of the semimajor axis of its orbit.
Demonstrations of Kepler¶s Laws Kepler¶s First and Second Laws Kepler¶s Third Law
More Information
Information from: http://hyperphysics.phyastr.gsu.edu/hbase/kepler.html
Kepler·s 1st Law
The Law of Orbits All planets move in elliptical orbits, with the sun at one focus.
The Elliptical shape of the orbit is due to the Inverse Square Law of Gravity.
That means the closer the planet gets to the sun the faster it will travel.
Kepler·s 2nd Law
The Law of Areas
Kepler·s 3rd Law
The Law of Periods
± The way Kepler showed it worked.
T T ! r r
2 1 3 1
2 2 3 2
We can use Earth¶s orbit to calculate the mean radius of Mercury around the sun. Data Mean radius of Earth to Sun = 1.5 x1011 m Period of Earth orbit = 3.16 x 107 s Period of Mercury orbit = 88 Earth days
Kepler·s Law shows how it works for the entire Solar System
3 r
2 t
Kepler·s Laws Flashlet
Have a go at creating your own orbits to look at Kepler¶s Laws
http://galileoandeinstein.physics.virginia.edu/more_stuff/flashlets/kepler6.htm
Newton proved Kepler·s Law of Periods with Gravitation
He used his Universal Gravitation and Circular Motion to solve it.
Mm mv 2 F !G 2 ! r r GM 2Tr 2 remember v ! @v ! r T ¨ 2Tr ¸ So, v ! © ¹ ª T º GM 4T 2 r 2 ! r T2
2 2
T 4T ! 3 r GM
T= Period in sec R = radius in metres
2
2
G = Gravitational Constant M = Mass of Large object kg
Problem
Determine the period of motion for a satellite orbiting a planet when
± Planet¶s mass is 7.2x 1012 kg ± Mean dist. of satellite to planet is 3.0 x 104m
For the same planet a moon has twice the period in comparison to the satellite.
± What is the moon¶s distance from the planet.
Calculating the Motion of Satellites
Gravitation provides the centripetal force that produces the circular motion that is the satellite¶s orbit around a planet. Therefore, it can be said that: Gravitational force = Centripetal force Satellite Motion Principles Satellite Motion Mathematics
Types of Orbits
The LEOs and the Geos LEO or Low Earth Orbit is an orbit higher than 250km and lower than 1000km. A Geostationary orbit is at an orbit where the period of the Satellite¶s orbit is equal to the Earth¶s period of rotation. It is approximately an altitude of 35,800km.
Homework Find some uses for both Geos and Leos. What is the difference between a Geostationary and a Geosynchronous satellite?
Rocket Launch
Pioneers of Space Exploration
Tsiolkovsky, Oberth, Goddard, EsnaultPelterie, OµNeill and von Braun Library and Internet Lesson. Handout As a class we will gather information together and create a timeline showing the cause and effect of these physicists discoveries
Rocket Launch
Escape Velocity G Force Effect of Earth¶s orbital motion on the Rocket Changing Acceleration of Rocket in terms of:  Law of Conservation of Momentum  forces experienced by astronauts
Escape Velocity
Handout on Escape Velocity
Click here to calculate escape velocity on other planets
Calculating Escape Velocity
To get something off Earth we need the Kinetic Energy to equal or overcome the Potential Energy that the Gravitational Field provides. Therefore the Law of Conservation of Energy means that KE = PE
1 2 mvesc ! 2
m r
M = mass of Earth m = mass of object V = velocity R = distance from centre of Earth
Simplified Escape Velocity
vesc !
2 r
So calculate how fast we need to go from Earth¶s surface to escape Earth¶s gravity.
Mass of Earth = 5.98 x1024 Radius to Earth¶s Surface = 6.37 x106
Answer = 11.2 km/s
How would the rotation of Earth affect the launch of a rocket?
As the Earth spins on its axis of course depending on where the rocket exits means it will be affected by he spin. Therefore if the rocket exits with the spin it gets a boost of speed. Yet if it exits against the spin of Earth it must travel even faster to gain the required speed to get where it wants to go.
It is easier to launch to the East.
Earth's rotational velocity is 465 m/s to the east at the equator. Remember the Average Escape Velocity is 11.2km/s so, A rocket launched tangentially from the Earth's equator to the east requires an initial velocity of about 10.735 km/s relative to earth to escape whereas A rocket launched tangentially from the Earth's equator to the west requires an initial velocity of about 11.665 km/s relative to earth.
What about the Sun and Earth·s orbit?
If a rocket travels fast enough to escape Earth¶s atmosphere and reduce the Gravitational pull it then enters the pull of the Sun. Therefore timing is also important for sending a rocket or probe for deep space missions. Why do you think?
Acceleration of Rockets
As a rocket takes off it is acted upon by two forces.
± Gravity ± Thrust from the engine
F ! ma ! thrust weight ! T mg
To be able to accelerate upwards the rocket¶s thrust must be greater than that of its weight. So acceleration of a rocket is mathematically calculated by, As the rocket goes upwards fuel is burnt and the mass of the rocket becomes smaller. The mass gets smaller so acceleration increases from Newton¶s Second Law.
T mg a! m
The Conservation of Momentum in Rocket Launch
The rocket exhaust is what provides the thrust in the rocket launch. Gases are ejected from the back of the rocket and hence push the rocket in the opposite direction. Therefore the exhaust provides the impulse that drives the rocket upwards.
Newton¶s Third Law states for every action there is an equal and opposite reaction. So the change in momentum of the gases equals the change in momentum of the rocket only in the opposite direction.
(p gases ! (procket ( (mv) gases ! ((mv ) rocket vrocket ! ((mv ) gases (mrocket
Gravitational Acceleration
Gravitational Acceleration Information
Pioneers
Identify data sources, gather, analyse and present information on the contribution of one of the following to the development of space exploration: Tsiolkovsky, Oberth, Goddard, EsnaultPelterie, OµNeill or von Braun Some useful data sources on rocket pioneers that are available from the Internet are provided below. Decide on the type of information you will collect. Presenting information in chronological sequence would be appropriate. The evolution of the rocket NASA Robert Goddard and his rockets NASA The beginning From Space exploration: from Talisman of the past to gateway for the future, John F. Graham, 1995, Chapter 7. Department of Space Studies, University of North Dakota, USA The pioneers of rocketry & space travel The ThinkQuest web site Note that there are several other important rocket pioneers not mentioned in this syllabus point for which information is readily available. Conversely, not all of the pioneers mentioned have a plentiful supply of information available. Nevertheless, there is a great deal of information available on Tsiolkovsky and Goddard, in particular. Gather information from a range of sources. Analyse the information by identifying trends and relationships as well as contradictions in data and information. Select and use an appropriate media to present your data and information. The use of an annotated timeline would be appropriate.
Slingshot Effect or Gravity Assist & Safe Reentry to Earth
The Slingshot Effect
The slingshot effect is used to increase  or sometimes to decrease  the the speed, and to change the direction of motion of an interplanetary spacecraft.
Three bodies must always be involved for the slingshot effect to operate. The satellites (usually a planet and an artificial one) must both be in orbit around a third central body.
Slingshot ectSatt arth.mov
The Slingshot Effect
As a result of the slingshot effect, the satellite gains momentum relative to the central body.
xx
Slingshot
ectSatt arth.mov
The Slingshot Effect
The momentum gained by the satellite is not transferred back to the planet after the satelliteplanet interaction.
Momentum is transferred between the two because of the gravitational interaction between them. To gain momentum the satellite must approach the planet so that it passes behind the planet in its orbit.
Slingshot ectSatt arth.mov
The Slingshot Effect
xx
xx
The slingshot effect
The slingshot effect is also known as a planetary swing by or a gravityassist manoeuvre. It is performed to achieve an increase in speed and/or a change of direction. A spacecraft is aimed close to a planet. As it approaches, the spacecraft is caught by the gravitational field of the planet, and swings around it. The speed acquired is then sufficient to throw the spacecraft back out again, away from the planet. By controlling the approach, the outcome of the manoeuvre can be manipulated.
The Slingshot Effect
Slingshot Effect
Momentum of a spacecraft cannot be increased if the planet is stationary. All that can be achieved is a change of direction.
Notice in the vector diagram the magnitude does not change.
Image thanks to http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Gravitational_slingshot
Let·s see it in action
The Voyager Probes
Slingshot Effect
When a planet is moving a spacecraft can use the motion of the planet to gain velocity. It does this by taking a very small amount of momentum away from the planet¶s motion. Notice in the vector diagram the magnitude and direction changes.
Image thanks to http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Gravitational_slingshot
Slingshot Effect Flashlet
http://galileoandeinstein.physics.virginia.edu/more_stuff/flashlets/Slingshot.htm
Landing a Rocket
Issues of safety for rocket reentry into Earth¶s atmosphere and landing on Earth¶s surface  Heat  GForces  Radio Blockout  Landing
Reentry of Shuttle
Problems to overcome in Reentry
± Extreme Heat ± G Forces ± Communication problems
Homework How do these problems impact on the shuttle¶s travel? What are some features of the shuttle that aim to reduces these impacts?
G Forces
GForces Gravity effects all objects within the Earth's gravitational field  Gforce. When a person is standing still on the earth, they are experiencing One G (one times the force of gravity). When a pilot in an airplane changes its orientation rapidly (tight turns, loops, etc.), the aircraft will undergo additional Gforces. These may be positive or negative Gforces.
Effects on AstronautsG Forces
G force is a ratio that compares an acceleration to the acceleration due to gravity. An acceleration of 9G means an astronaut will feel a force 9 times that of the pull of gravity. How much can a person withstand?
± 8G is the maximum safe load ± Ideally 3G is aimed for
Positive G Forces
Positive G's are generated when an aircraft pitches upwards (the nose pulls up). For example, when the aircraft turns quickly or pulls up sharply. A World War II fighter may be capable of generating 7 G's or more. The physical effect of Positive G's on a pilot is a possible blackout. This is caused by the increased effort the heart must generate to counter the Gforces and still supply the brain with sufficient blood. When the Gforces are too great, the pilot will slowly lose vision due to this lack of blood supply. When prolonged, the blackout can cause a loss of consciousness.
Issues affecting spacecraft reentry and landing
Orbiting spacecraft have a large amount of energy due to their: Altitude (giving the spacecraft potential energy) Speed (giving the spacecraft kinetic energy)
Problem: The space shuttle has a mass o approximately 82 tonnes hen it begins its reentry manoeuvres. At an altitude o 300 km, the shuttle has an orbital period o 91 minutes. Compare the kinetic and potential energies o the space shuttle at this altitude. 24 kg note that: v ! 2 R M arth = 5.97x10 T R arth = 6378 km 1 ¨ 1 ¸ GMm ¹ 6.67 v 10 ±11 v 5.97 v 1024 v 82000x © ± = r ª6378000 6678000 º p = 2.3x1011 J 1 = 2 mv2 k = 0.5 x 82000 x 77002 = 2.43 x 1012 J
Issues affecting spacecraft reentry and landing
For a satellite in LEO, the kinetic energy is about ten times the potential energy and they are both very significant quantities of energy.
Issues affecting spacecraft reentry and landing
To land safely, a spacecraft must reduce its speed by 90% as it approaches the Earth. The speed reduction is accomplished through Retrorocket firing (slows the vehicle by about 1%) Frictional drag in the atmosphere Frictional drag through the Earth¶s atmosphere converts the energy of the satellite to heat energy.
Issues affecting spacecraft reentry and landing
For spacecraft intended to for return to Earth, dissipation of the heat energy generated by during reentry is a major consideration in the spacecraft design and reentry process. Key strategies employed to ensure the spacecraft does not burn up include the use of heat resistant (high melting point) materials materials with very low thermal conductivity materials with a very low heat capacity ablation (burning off of material from the craft) heat radiation from the heated surface of the spacecraft
Issues affecting spacecraft reentry and landing
Retrorockets slow the spacecraft slightly, causing its orbit to decay. The lower orbit results in much greater frictional drag, greatly slowing the spacecraft. The angle at which the spacecraft enters the atmosphere is critical. Too shallow an angle will cause the satellite to bounce off the atmosphere and reenter space Too steep an angle will cause too great an increase in drag, causing the spacecraft to burn up in the atmosphere
Issues affecting spacecraft reentry and landing
There is thus an optimum angle at which a spacecraft returning to Earth must enter the atmosphere 5±7°
Spacecraft  capsule ablative heat shield
Protection of the shuttle during reentry is achieved by insulating tiles made of silica and placed on the under side of the craft.
Spacecraft space shuttle
If space science was like sport!