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METHODS

 THE GRAMMAR TRANSLATION METHOD
 THE REFORM MOVEMENT
 THE DIRECT METHOD
 THE READING METHOD
 ORAL APPROACH OR SITUATIONAL APPROACH
 THE AUDIOLINGUAL METHOD
 COGNITIVE CODE LEARNING OR COGNITIVE APPROACH
 TOTAL PHYSICAL RESPONSE
 SILENT WAY
 COMMUNITY LANGUAGE LEARNING
 SUGGESTOLOGY OR SUGGESTOPEDIA
 COMMUNICATIVE APPROACHES

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GRAMMAR TRANSLATION METHOD  The Grammar Translation Method emerged in Prussia at the end of the 18th century and became firmly entrenched in the 19th century. Howatt (1984) points out that the first known text based on this method dates from 1793 and its autor was Johan Christian Fick. .

 It was rooted in the formal teaching of Latin and Greek. The teaching methods of these ancient languages were used to teach modern languages. . the same gramatical terminology and techniques were adopted: textbooks consisted of statements of abstract gramar rules. lists of vocabulary and sentences for translation.

There was very little opportunity to practise the language orally by means of listening or speaking activities. OBJECTIVES  The aim of the course was to train students to read literature written in the foreign language and to write the foreign language accurately. there was just ocasional reading-aloud practice. .

 Translation was the technique used to extract meaning from texts and the basic activities developed in the classroom consisted of teaching gramar rules. The linguistic unit on which language teaching was based was the sentence. A typical textbook thus consisted of chapters or lessons organised around gramar points. and afterwards examples were provided. Analysing the gramar system of a language was based on deduction techniques: the rules were first explained. the students learnt them. and of regular practice in translating sentences .

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 The students native language (L1) was the médium of instruction and it was used to explain new items and to enable comparisons to be made between the two languages. The foreign language was not used in the class to any entent. the only exception being stereotyped reading comprehension exercises since students Drew the sentences directly from the text in order to answer the questions. .

since he had no need to be imaginative or creative in planning the lessons. as the students are expected to attain high standards in translation. . However the teacher’s role in the classroom was not very demanding.TEACHER AND LEARNER ROLES  The teaching activity was focused on the teacher as he becomes the most relevant figure within the classroom. He gives a lot of importance to error correction and always looks for gramatical and lexical accuracy.

. On the other hand. the student’s role was a passive one: they absorbed the information supplied by the teacher and afterwards they had to reproduce it in order to satisfy the teacher.

linguists like Henry Sweet in England. Wilhelm Viëtor in Germany. . THE REFORM MOVEMENT  From the 1980s. moving into a more pragmatic and more communicative approach.  The discipline of Linguistics was revitalised. providing new insights into speech process. began to provide the intelectual leadership needed to give reformists ideas greater credibility and acceptance. and Paul Passy in France.  Phonetics (the scientific study and description of the sound systems of language) was established.

 The International Phonetic Association was founded in 1886. and its International Phonetic Alphabet (IPA) was designed to enable accurate sound transcription for any language. In order to do so. One of the earliest goals of the assciation was to improve the teaching of modern languages. • An inductive approach to the teaching of grammar . the members of the association advocated: • The study of the spoken language • Phonetic training in order to establish good pronunciation habits. • The use of conversation texts and dialogues to introduce conversational phrases and idioms.

Learners should hear the language first. Principles of the Reform Movement 1. 3. 2. The rules of gramar should be taught only after the students have practised the gramar points in context – that is. although the mother tongue could be used in order to explain new words or to check comprehension. . The spoken language is primary and that this should be reflected in an oral-based methodology. 5. before seeing it in written form. Words should be presented in sentences. 6. The findings of phonetics should be applied to teaching and to teacher training. 4. and sentences should be practised in meaningful contexts and not be taught as isolated. Translation should be avoided. gramar should be taught inductively. disconnected elements.

the fact that gramar-translation method did not have interpersonal communication as one of its main goals. were gaining increasing relevance.S. and the relegation of grammar to a subordinate position. It seems logical then that the interest was in stressing the ability to use the foreign language rather than analysing it. the direct association of word with object. .  At that time international relation in the fields of Politics and Commerce above all. who in the 1850s was advocating the avoidance of the mother tongue. a Scottish teacher. THE DIRECT METHOD  In the middle of the 19th century the origins of what would become the Direct Method were developed by J. Blackie. made it unsuitable for students who were not from an academic background. Besides.

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THE READING METHOD  The reading method to language teaching was seen as a better option. In the 1920s several studies were carried out by West (1926) and Coleman (1929) and in their reports they stated that most American students learnt a foreign language for two years only. as this was the skill that offered fewer dificculties in the context of secodary school teaching. during these two years the only attainable objective was the development of the reading ability. .

but without a conscious effort to translate. It was expected that students would use the same techniques they had used when learning to read in their native language. . they would infer meaning from the context. The students were trained to read the foreign language with direct apprehension of meaning. The Reading Method focused on the systematic teaching of reading comprehension. if there were any words that students did not understand. So.

. these materials contained controlled vocabulary and syntax structures. • Extensive reading activities were also part of the learning process. The extensive reading led way to undertaking class projects. In this case the students would read on their own texts graded to their language level. which were valuable form the pedagogical point of view. who would check the degree of comprehension achieved.Intensive reading and extensive reading Reading could be either intensive or extensive: • Intensive reading tasks were continuosly supervised by the teacher.The intensive reading also provided source material for gramatical study and for the acquisition of vocabulary.

students were usually unable to comprehend and speak the language beyond the very simple exchanges. since there was oral practice related to a text: students had to read the text aloud or to do exercises consisting of questions and answers.  As with the Grammar Translation Method. and so on. The Reading Method had limited objectives and tended to give a false impression of the level of language and reading skills acquired by the student.  Some importance was also given to correct pronunciation. so there was no need for active reproduction. tenses. negations.  The study of gramar was supposed to be directed to the needs of the reader. the most important thing was the quick recognition of certain verb forms. Writing was limited to exercises where the students had the opportunity to use some of the vocabulary and essential structures also necessary to understand the text. As oral communication was secondary. .

Hornby. The result was a systematic study of the principles and procedures that could be applied to the selection and organisation of the content of a language course. ORAL APPROACH OR SITUATIONAL APPROACH  After 15 years or so the Direct Method was not living up to expectations and.  What they attempted was to develop a more scientific foundation for an oral approach to teaching English tan was evidenced in the Direct Method. The Oral Approach is focused on the theories developed in England between the 1930s and the 1960s. Two of the leaders in this movement were Harold Palmer and A. as a result of a series of modifications introduced. 1921) . who were familiar with the Direct Method. a new variant of the Direct Method emerged.S. (Palmer 1917.

 He realised that what coursebooks and teacher intend is different from what each individual student learns. for a programme of study depends on the aim or the aims of the students.  “We cannot design a language course until we know something abou the students for whom the course is intended. . Palmer saw the need to tailor the language course to the aims of the actual students rather to some abstract goal.

This oral practice of controlled sentence patterns should be given in situations designed to give the greatest amount of practice in English speech to the pupil”.  Alexander and other leading British textbooks writers also developed materials that reflected the principles of Situational Language Teaching. “Our principal classroom activity in the teaching of English structure will be the oral practice of structures. . Pittman and his colleagues developed an influential set of teaching materials based on the situational approach. One of the most active proponents of the Oral Approach in the sixties was the Australian George Pittman.

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.  This led to the development of a new method in foreign language teaching in the US in the 1950s: Audiolingualism. which is why such excellent results were often achieved and the programme was very successful. THE AUDIO-LINGUAL METHOD  Until the second World War the teaching method that dominated was the reading-based method with Little place for oral communication.  The methodology of the Army Method implied intensive contact with the target language (= ten hours a day.  The war made it imperative for the US military to teach foreign language learners to speak and understan a language quickly and efficiently. six days a week) in small clases of mature and highly motivated students.  The American Council of Learned Societies created a linguistic programme called ASTP (Army Specialised Training Programme) in 1941.  The existing methods at that time were not considered sutiable to promote the communicative needs which had arisen as a consequence of war.

as the drilling protects them from their initial embarrasment and minimises mistakes.The benefits of these procedures were the relatively high motivation of students.  Students were more encouraged to focus on hte mastery of the phonological and gramatical structures tan on vocabulary: correct pronunciation. as opposed to gramatical explanations. These dialogues provided a means of contextualising key structures and illustrating situations in which structures might be used as well as some cultural aspects of the target language. stress. . rhythm and intonation were emphasised.Main features of Audiolingualism  Teaching was based on dialogues that contained commonly-used everyday expressions and basic structures.  Dialogues and pattern drills were learned by a process of mimicry and memorisation: first as a group. then in smaller groups and finally individually.

 Reading and writing skills were dependant upon previous oral skills. It was not until much later that students were encouraged to express themselves in short compositions. Writing was imitative. consisting of transcriptions of words and dialogue sentences.  The use of the L1 was avoided in the classroom as much as posible. The reading tasks were at first an adaptation or recombination of waht students had learned orally.  The treatment of error was an important component of the learning process and sometimes students were not encouraged to speak in order to avoid mistakes. although these were strictly controlled in terms of content. . although it was never forbidden.

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Mking mistakes isviewed as part of the process of achieving and understanding rules.B. but it was based on theoretical principles about a particular view of language and of the nature of linguistic learning. with special relevance granted to morphology and syntax within the sentence. thus gramar is explained openly and is often contrasted with the first language.COGNITIVE CODE LEARNING OR COGNITIVE APPROACH  As a result of the critiques of the audiolingual method. this was never a method.  The changes affected hte procedures of language learning more than the objectives. K. and the contents were focused on the gramatical component. . Conscious learning of the language system is promoted: learners need to have control of the language rules in order to be able to generate their own language in new situations (the principle of creativity). Chastain and K Diller proposed a set of guidelines for language teaching. In other words. Crroll. learners need to understand the system of rules. Conscious focus on gramar acknowledges the role of abstract mental processes in learning rather than defining learning simply in terms of habit formation. From the very beginning the objective of language teaching was to give the same importance to the four skills. linguists such as J.  2. Some of the theoretical underpinnings of the Cognitive Approach were:  1.

 Learning must be meaningful (in contrast to the routine reoetition of drills). It is believed that if students have a cognitive control over the language structures. they Will automatically develop the ability to use them in meaningful situations. Thus learning is under the learner’s control. . so that the learners can familiarise themselves with the rules first (knowledge) and apply them afterwards (performance). This means that learners first deal with controlled comprehension and manipulation of linguistic forms for later use in in real communication situations. Learning must go from the known to the unknown. 3. it must be related to the new materials and adapted to the learner needs.