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Guided by Mr. P. D. Sudersanan Asst prof, mech dept, Dr. TTIT
In automotive engineering, an engine is referred to as multi-valve when each cylinder has more than two valves. Such designs have been around since at least 1912 and perhaps earlier. Most poppet valve, four-stroke internal combustion engines have at least two valves per cylinder (Diesel engines with one valve exist.) ² One for intake of air and fuel, and another for exhaust of combustion products. Adding more valves improves the flow of intake and exhaust gases, potentially improving combustion efficiency, power, and performance. Many engines were made with two valves per cylinder, but, starting in the late 80s, a virtual explosion of multi-valve and DOHC engines came to market. As a result, even the most basic engines today usually contain four valves per cylinder, though the two valve configuration is still popular.
Types of Engines
External combustion Engines Internal combustion Engines Two stroke Engines Four stroke Engines Rotary Engines
Two stroke Engines A two-stroke engine is an internal combustion engine that completes the thermodynamic cycle in two movements of the piston compared to twice that number for a four-stroke engine This increased efficiency is accomplished by using the beginning of the compression stroke and the end of the combustion stroke to perform simultaneously the intake and exhaust (or scavenging) functions In this way two-stroke engines often provide strikingly high specific power .
or more commonly by a timing belt . or two of each The valves are opened and closed by a rotating camshaft at the top of the engine The camshaft is driven by either gear directly from the crank.Four stroke Engines 4 stroke engines are typically much larger capacity than 2 stroke engines 4 stroke engines typically have valves at the top of the combustion chamber The simplest type has one intake and one exhaust valve More complex engines have two of one and one of the other.
most modern engines incorporate an extra cam/lifter arrangement as seen on the exhaust valve. The illustrated engine features a poppet intake valve which is drawn open by the vacuum produced by the intake stroke. driving the piston downward At the bottom of the power stroke. During the intake stroke. compressing the fuel/air mixture At the top of the compression stroke. the piston moves downward. the exhaust valve is opened by the cam/lifter mechanism. The exhaust valve is held shut by a spring As the piston rises. As the fuel burns it expands. The upward stroke of the piston drives the exhausted fuel out of the cylinder . the spark plug fires. however. igniting the compressed fuel. Some early engines worked this way. the poppet valve is forced shut by the increased cylinder pressure. Flywheel momentum drives the piston upward. drawing a fresh charge of vaporized fuel/air mixture.
It was developed by Felix Wankel in the 1950s In the Wankel.Rotary engines The Wankel rotary engine is a fascinating beast that features a very clever rearrangement of the four elements of the Otto cycle. a triangular rotor incorporating a central ring gear is driven around a fixed pinion within an oblong chamber .
driving the rotor around And the exhaust is expelled here .WORKING OF WANKEL ENGINE The fuel/air mixture is drawn in the intake port during this phase of the rotation The mixture is compressed here The mixture burns here.
VALVES All four-stroke internal combustion engines employ valves to control the admittance of fuel and air into the combustion chamber In piston engines. Some valves feather to adjust the flow to control power or engine speed as well . the valves are grouped into 'inlet valves' which admit the entrance of fuel and air and 'outlet valves' which allow the exhaust gases to escape Each valve opens once per cycle and the ones that are subject to extreme accelerations are held closed by springs that are typically opened by rods running on a camshaft rotating with the engines' crankshaft Continuous combustion engines²as well as piston engines²usually have valves that open and close to admit the fuel and/or air at the startup and shutdown.
Valve Classification Poppet valve Sleeve valve Rotary valve .
usually a disk shape on the end of a shaft also called a valve stem.POPPET VALVE A poppet valve is a valve consisting of a hole. The shaft guides the plug portion by sliding through a valve guide Poppet valves are used in most piston engines to open and close the intake and exhaust ports in the cylinder head The valve is usually a flat disk of metal with a long rod known as the valve system out one end The stem is used to push down on the valve and open it. with a spring generally used to close it when the stem is not being pushed on . usually round or oval. and a tapered plug.
Poppet valves in action in top of the cylinder .
Sleeve valve .
SLEEVE VALVE The sleeve valve is a type of valve mechanism for piston engines A sleeve valve takes the form of one or more machined sleeves. It fits between the piston and the cylinder wall in the cylinder of an internal combustion engine where it rotates and/or slides. . ports (holes) in the side of the valve aligning with the cylinder's inlet and exhaust ports at the appropriate stages in the engine's cycle.
.ROTARY VALVE A rotary valve is a type of valve in which the rotation of a passage or passages in a transverse plug regulates the flow of liquid or gas through the attached pipes.
most notably in the Corliss engine. including: Changing the pitch of brass instruments Controlling the steam and exhaust ports of steam engines. .The common stopcock is the simplest form of rotary valve. Periodically reversing the flow of air and fuel across the open hearth furnace. Certain types of 2-stroke gasoline engines. Loading sample on chromatography columns. Rotary valves have been applied in numerous applications.
MULTI-VALVE 3-valve engines 4-valve engines 5-valve engines .
3-VALVE ENGINES .
.it needs only a single camshaft to drive both intake valves and the exhaust valve of each cylinder. The earliest mass production multivalve engines were 3-valves because of its simple construction . there are still a few car cars using this cheap but inefficient design. Today. such as Fiat Palio and Mercedes V6 and V8 engines.
4-valve engines A 4-Valve engine is designed for better performance than a regular 2-Valve engine More power: The 4-valve provides for a greater intake and exhaust area resulting in more power More Mileage: 4-valve not only enhances the performance but also returns a very good fuel economy More green: Comfortably meets BSIII regulations .
What is the 4-valve engine? An engine that has valves that let the air-fuel mixture into the combustion chamber to be burned and then draw out the exhaust gas after the combustion. A conventional engine has one intake valve to let in the air-fuel mixture and one exhaust valve to let out the exhaust gases. But the 4-valve engine has two intake and two exhaust valves. .
because the spark plug can be placed in the middle. 4 valves are better to be driven by twin-cam. 4-valve design also benefits from a clean and effective combustion. but a 4-valve head increases that to more than 50%. hence smoother and quicker breathing. . A typical 2-valve engine has just 1/3 combustion chamber head area covered by the valves. one for intake valves and one for exhaust valves.
. This is the second major merit. MERITS: The first merit of 4-valve design is that it allows the spark plug to be positioned in the center of the combustion chamber to provide more efficient flame spread and combustion. the 4-valve design enables greater overall valve area than a 2-valve system for more efficient (per unit of area) intake and exhaust function. In other words. 4-valve type and its shape is designed with the minimum area necessary for the two intake and two exhaust valves. At the same time it is designed with a minimum intake and exhaust valve angles to realize an optimum combustion chamber shape. Also. it enables highly efficient combustion.
For example. .COMPARISION OF 4-VALVES OVER 2-VALVES A conventional engine has one intake valve to let in the air-fuel mixture and one exhaust valve to let out the exhaust gases. Yamaha¶s YZR-M1 MotoGP race machine has four valves. But the 4-valve engine has two intake and two exhaust valves 4-valves is better than two because 4-valves give an engine steadier low-speed performance and a better acceleration feeling That¶s why most race engines and high-performance engines have four valves.
The result is engine knock and less torque. At higher revs. Therefore 2 intake valves work better at high RPM. hence better gas mixing and better cylinder filling. If you open a second intake valve at low engine speed. At low engine speeds. as they allow greater airflow . leaving poor intake filling and a lean intake charge. and so 4 valves are better. the air/fuel mixture entering the cylinder can be tangential to the circle of the cylinder. When you have only 2 valves. the velocity drops dramatically. better air/fuel mixing and hence better performance at lower revs in an SI engine. one intake valve gives increased velocity. at high RPM. breathing is the name of the game. A proper extractor exhaust can make a significant difference on a two valve system and a restrictive exhaust can nullify all the gains of a 4 valve system. enough turbulence is available to create good mixing. The name of the game is velocity and turbulence/mixing of the intake charge at differing engine speeds. The valves are open such a short length of time you need the maximum available intake area. On the other hand. giving a high degree of swirl. All of this is of course subject to the exhaust system design.
This technology is adopted on YZF R15 PULSAR 135cc .
5-valve engines .
It is arguable that whether 5 valves per cylinder helps raising engine efficiency 5-valve design doesn¶t guarantee covering more head area than 4-valve All existing 5-valve engines have 3 intake valves and 2 exhaust valves per cylinder The Ferrari F355 makes use of this to enhance high-speed breathing but faster breathing also harms low-speed torque if no counter measure is taken. Therefore it is really more suitable to sports cars The advantage of 5-valve engine is still under question .
VALVE TIMING DIAGRAM .
Types of overhead camshaft Single overhead camshaft (SOHC) Double overhead camshafts (DOHC) .
This allows for higher engine speeds. long pushrods. and rocker arms to transfer the movement of the lobes on the camshaft in the engine block to the valves in the cylinder head SOHC designs offen reduced complexity compared to pushrod designs when used for multi-valve heads in which each cylinder has more than two valves .SINGLE OVERHEAD CAMSHAFT (SOHC) Single overhead camshaft (SOHC) is a design in which one camshaft is placed within the cylinder head The SOHC design has less reciprocating mass than a comparable pushrod design. as opposed to overhead valve pushrod engines which have tappets. which in turn will increase power output for a given torque The cam operates the valves directly or through a rocker arm.
DOUBLE OVERHEAD CAMSHAFT(DOHC) A double overhead camshaft valve train layout is characterized by two camshafts located within the cylinder head. one operating the inlet valves and one operating the exhaust valve .
CONCLUSION 4-valve facilitate effective breathing and hence complete combustion of fuel can be achieved 4-valve systems parallely provide complete escape of the productsof combustion due to which fresh air fuel mixture is completely accomidated 4-valve increases turbulance and hence uniform mixture of air fuel takes and hence complete combustion is achieved and pre ignition is avoided 4-valve require a complex DOHC mechanism which increases the production cost but in a long run it is compensated By employing camless actuating mechanism. 4-valve technology can be adopted for small engine Further improvement in 4-valve technology is in process so there is scope for improvement in technology as well as cost can be reduced .
answers.com www.com www.howstuffworks.com www.REFERENCES Automotive Engineering by R.wikipedia.google.P.com .Gupta Automotive Engineering by Kripal singh www.
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