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You are on page 1of 67

Content

Average Power

Maximum Average Power Transfer

Complex Power

Power Factor Correction

2

Average Power

Average Power, in watts (W), is the average

of instantaneous power over one period

1

P Vm I m cos( v i )

2

3

Average Power

Resistive load (R) absorbs power all the time.

For a purely resistive circuit, the voltage and

the current are in phase (v = i).

1 1 2 1 2

P Vm I m I m R | I | R

2 2 2

4

Average Power

Reactive load (L or C) absorbs zero average

power.

For a purely reactive circuit, the voltage and the

current are out of phase by 90o (v - i = ±90).

1

P Vm I m cos 90 0

o

2

5

Exercise 11.3

Find the average power supplied by the source and the average

power absorb by the resistor

6

Solution

The current I is given by

530 o

I 1.11856.57 o A

4 j2

1

P (5)(1.118)cos(30o 56.57 o ) 2.5W

2

7

Solution

The current through the resistor is

I R I 1.11856.57 o A

The voltage across resistor is

VR 4I R 4.47256.57 o V

The average power absorbed by the resistor is

1

P (4.472)(1. 118) 2.5W

2

Notice that the average power supplied by the voltage source is same

as the power absorbed by the resistor.

This result shows the capacitor absorbed zero average power.

8

Practice Problem 11.3

Calculate the average power absorbed by the resistor and the

inductor. Then find the average power supplied by the voltage source

9

Solution

The current I is given by

845o

I 2.5326.57 o A

3 j

I R I 2.5326.57 o A

VR 3I 7.5926.57 o V

1 1

PR Vm I m (7.59)(2.53) 9.6W

2 2

10

Solution

For the inductor

I L I 2.5326.57 o A

VL jI L 2.53116.57 o V

1

PL (2.53)(2.53)cos(90o ) 0W

2

The average power supplied by the voltage source is

1

P (8)(2.53)cos(45o 26.57 o ) 9.6W

2

Notice that the average absorbed by the resistor is same as the power

supplied by the voltage source.

This result shows the inductor also absorbed zero average power.

11

MAXIMUM AVERAGE POWER

TRANSFER

12

Maximum Power Transfer

For maximum power transfer, the load

impedance ZL must equal to the complex

conjugate of the Thevenin impedance Zth

Z L Z th *

R L jX L R th jX th

13

Maximum Average Power

The current through the load is

Vth Vth

I

Zth ZL (R th jX th ) (R L jX L )

the load is

1 2

P | I | RL

2

1 | VTh |2 R L

2 (R Th R L ) 2 (X Th X L ) 2

14

Maximum Average Power

By setting RL = Rth and XL = -Xth , the maximum average power is

1 | VTh |2 | VTh |2

Pavg,max

2 4R Th 8R Th

must equal to the magnitude of the Thevenin impedance.

R L | Z th |

15

Exercise 11.5

Determine the load impedance ZL that maximize the power drawn

and the maximum average power.

16

Solution

First we obtain the Thevenin equivalent

ZTh j5 4 || (8 j6)

(2.933 j4.467) Ω

To find Vth, consider circuit (b)

(8 - j6)

VTh (100o )

4 (8 - j6)

7.454 10.3o V

17

Solution

From the result obtained, the load impedance draws the maximum

power from the circuit when

| VTh |2 (7.454) 2

Pmax 2.368W

8R Th 8(2.933)

18

Practice Problem 11.5

Determine the load impedance ZL that absorbs the maximum

average power. Calculate the maximum average power.

19

Solution

First we obtain the Thevenin equivalent

Z Th 5 || (8 j4 j10)

(3.415 j0.7317) Ω

By using current divider

8 j4

I (2)

8 j4 5 j10

1.249 51.34o A

Solution

From the result obtained, the load impedance draws the maximum

power from the circuit when

Z L Z Th * (3.415 j0.7317) Ω

| VTh |2 (6.25) 2

Pmax 1.429 W

8R Th 8(3.415)

21

Example 11.6

Find the value of RL that will absorbs maximum average power.

Then calculate that power.

22

Solution

First we obtain the Thevenin equivalent

Find Zth

ZTh j20 || (40 j30)

(9.412 j22.35) Ω

Find Vth

By using voltage divider

j20

VTh (15030 o )

j20 40 j30

72.76134 o V

23

Solution

The value of RL that will absorb the maximum average power is

24.25

The current through the load is

VTh 72.76 134 o

I

Z Th R L (9.412 j22.35) 24.25

1.8100.42 o A

The maximum average power is

1 2 1

Pmax | I | R L (1.8) 2 24.25 39.29W

2 2

24

Practice Problem 11.6

Find the value of RL that will absorbs maximize average power,

Then calculate the power.

25

Solution

First we obtain the Thevenin equivalent

Then

ZTh Z1 || Z 2 (17.181 j24.57) Ω

To find Vth

By using voltage divider

Z2

VTh (12060 o )

Z1 Z2

35.98 31.91o V

26

Solution

The value of RL that will absorb the maximum average power is

R L | ZTh | 30

VTh 35.98 - 31.91o

I

Z Th R L (17.181 j24.57) 30

0.6764 4.4o A

1 2 1

Pmax | I | R L (0.6764) 2 (30) 6.863W

2 2

27

Complex Power

Apparent Power, S (VA)

Real Power, P (Watts)

Reactive Power, Q (VAR)

Power Factor, cos

28

Complex Power

Complex power is the product of the rms

voltage phasor and the complex conjugate

of the rms current phasor.

Measured in volt-amperes or VA

As a complex quantity

Its real part is real power, P

Its imaginary part is reactive power, Q

29

Complex Power (Derivation)

V

1 Vrms Vrms θ v

S VI * 2

2 I

I rms I rms θ i

S Vrms I rms * 2

S Vrms I rms θ v θi

30

Complex Power (Derivation)

SI 2

rms Z

S I 2 rms (R jX)

I 2 rms R jI 2 rms X

31

Complex Power (Derivation)

From derivation, we notice that the real power is

P I 2 rms R

and also the reactive power

Q I 2 rms X

32

Real or Average Power

The real power is the average power

delivered to a load.

Measured in watts (W)

The only useful power

The actual power dissipated by the load

33

Reactive Power

The reactive power, Q is the imaginary parts

of complex power.

The unit of Q is volt-ampere reactive (VAR).

It represents a lossless interchange between

the load and the source

Q = 0 for resistive load (unity pf)

Q < 0 for capacitive load (leading pf)

Q > 0 for inductive load (lagging pf)

34

Apparent Power

The apparent power is the product of rms

values of voltage and current

Measured in volt-amperes or VA

Magnitude of the complex power

| S | Vrms I rms P Q

2 2

35

Power Factor

Power factor is the cosine of the phase

difference between voltage and current.

It is also cosine of the angle of the load

impedance.

P

pf cos( v i )

S

36

Power Factor

The range of pf is between zero and

unity.

For a purely resistive load, the voltage

and current are in phase so that v- i = 0

and pf = 1, the apparent power is equal

to average power.

For a purely reactive load, v- i = 90 and

pf = 0, the average power is zero.

37

Power Triangular

Comparison between the power triangular (a) and the impedance triangular (b).

38

Problem 11.46

For the following voltage and current phasors, calculate the

complex power, apparent power, real power and reactive

power. Specify whether the pf is leading or lagging.

39

Solution

a) S = VI* = (22030o)( 0.5-60o) c) S = VI* = (1200o)( 2.415o)

= 110-30o VA = 95.26 – j55 VA = 28815o VA = 278.2 + j74.54 VA

Real Power = 95.26 W Real Power = 278.2 W

Reactive Power = -55 VAR Reactive Power = 74.54 VAR

pf is leading because current leads voltage pf is lagging because current lags voltage

= 155015o VA = 1497.2 + j401.2 VA = 1360-45o VA = 961.7 – j961.7 VA

Real Power = 1497.2 W Real Power = 961.7 W

Reactive Power = 401.2 VAR Reactive Power = -961.7 VAR

pf is lagging because current lags voltage pf is leading because current leads voltage

40

Problem 11.48

Determine the complex power for the following cases:

41

Solution

a) Given P = 269W, Q = 150VAR (capacitive)

Complex power, S P jQ (269 j150)VA

308 29.14 o VA

b) Given Q = 2000VAR, pf = 0.9 (leading)

Q 2000

Q S sin S 4588 .31

sin sin( 25.84 )

o

4588 - 25.84 o VA

42

Solution

c) Given S = 600VA, Q = 450VAR (inductive)

Q 450

Q S sin sin 0.75

S 600

48.59 o

pf cos 0.6614

600 48.59 o VA

43

Solution

d) Given Vrms = 220V, P = 1kW, |Z| = 40 (inductive)

| V |2 220 2

S 1210

| Z| 40

P 1000

P S cos cos 0.8264

S 1210

34.26 o

Q S sin 681.25

1210 34.26 o VA

44

Problem 11.42

A 110Vrms, 60Hz source is applied to a load impedance Z. The

apparent power entering the load is 120VA at a power factor

of 0.707 lagging. Calculate

c) Determine Z

45

Solution

Given S = 120VA, pf = 0.707 = cos = 45o

a) the complex power

b) the rms current supplied to the load

S Vrms I rms

S 120

I rms 1.091A

Vrms 110

46

Solution

c) the impedance Z

S I rms Z

2

S

Z 2

(71.278 j 71.278)

I rms

d) value of R and L

If Z = R + jL then Z = 71.278 + j 71.278

R 71.278Ω

71.278

ωL 71.278 L 0.1891H

2f

47

Problem 11.83

Oscilloscope measurement indicate that the voltage across a

load and the current through is are 21060o V and 825o A

respectively. Determine

48

Solution

a) the real power

1 1

S VI* (21060 o )(8 25o )

2 2

(84035o )VA (688.1 j481.8)VA

P S cos(35o ) 840 cos(35o ) 688.1W

b) the apparent power

S 840 VA

c) the reactive power

Q S sin (35o ) 840 sin (35o ) 481.8VAR

d) the power factor

P

pf cos(35o ) 0.8191(lag ging)

S 49

Power Factor Correction

The process of increasing the power

factor without altering the voltage or

current to the original load.

It may be viewed as the addition of a

reactive element (usually capacitor) in

parallel with the load in order to make

the power factor closer to unity.

50

Power Factor Correction

Normally, most loads are inductive.

Thus power factor is improved or

corrected by installing a capacitor in

parallel with the load.

In circuit analysis, an inductive load is

modeled as a series combination of an

inductor and a resistor.

51

Implementation of Power Factor Correction

52

Calculation

If the original inductive load has apparent power S1, then

P = S1 cos 1 and Q1 = S1 sin 1 = P tan 1

cos1 to cos2 without altering the real power,

then the new reactive power is

Q2 = P tan 2

The reduction in the reactive power is caused by the shunt capacitor is given by

QC = Q1 – Q2 = P (tan 1 - tan 2)

53

Calculation

The value of the required shunt capacitance is determined by the

formula

QC P(tanθ1 tanθ 2 )

C

ωV rms

2

ωV rms

2

Notice that the real power, P dissipated by the load is not affected

by the power factor correction because the average power due to

the capacitor is zero

54

Example 11.15

load absorbs 4 kW at a lagging power factor of 0.8.

Find the value of capacitance necessary to raise the

pf to 0.95.

55

Solution

If the pf = 0.8 then,

cos1 = 0.8 1 = 36.87o

where 1 is the phase difference between the voltage and current.

We obtained the apparent power from the real power and the pf as shown below.

P 4000

S1 5000 VA

cos1 0.8

The reactive power is

56

Solution

When the pf raised to 0.95,

cos2 = 0.95 2 = 18.19o

The real power P has not changed. But the apparent power has changed. The

new value is

P 4000

S2 4210 .5VA

cos 2 0.95

57

Solution

The difference between the new and the old reactive power is due to the parallel

addition of the capacitor to the load.

The reactive power due to the capacitor is

The value of capacitance added is

QC 1685 .6

C 310.5μF

V rms 2 (60)(120)

2 2

58

Practice Problem 11.15

correct a load of 140 kVAR at 0.85 lagging pf to

unity pf. Assume the load is supplied by a 110V

(rms) 60Hz power line.

59

Solution

If the pf = 0.85 then,

cos1 = 0.85 1 = 31.79o

where 1 is the phase difference between the voltage and current.

We obtained the apparent power from the reactive power and the pf as shown

below.

Q1 140kVAR

S1 265.8kVA

sin 1 sin( 31.79)

60

Solution

When the pf raised to 1 (unity),

cos2 = 1 2 = 0o

The real power P has not changed. But the apparent power has changed. The

new value is

P 225.93kW

S2 225.93kVA

cos 2 1

Q2 S 2 sin 2 0

61

Solution

The difference between the new and the old reactive power due to the parallel

addition of the capacitor to the load.

The reactive power due to the capacitor is

The value of capacitance is

QC 140kVAR

C 30.69mF

V rms 2 (60)(110)

2 2

62

Problem 11.82

combination of a 5 kW heater and a 30 kVA

induction motor whose power factor is 0.82.

Determine

a) The system apparent power

b) The system reactive power

c) The kVA rating of a capacitor required to adjust the

system power factor to 0.9 lagging

d) The value of capacitance required

63

Solution

For the heater

P1 = 5000 Q1 = 0

cos1 = 0.82 1 = 34.92o

The real and the reactive power for the induction motor

64

Solution

The total system complex power

Stotal = S1 + S2 = (P1 + P2) + j (Q1 + Q2) = 29600 + j17171

The system apparent power

S = |Stotal| = 34.33kVA

The system reactive power

Q = 17171 kVAR

P 29600

pf 0.865

S 34220

65

Solution

The system pf = 0.865 then,

cos1 = 0.865 1 = 30.12o

cos2 = 0.9 2 = 25.84o

The rating for the capacitance required to adjust the power factor to 0.9

66

Solution

The value of capacitance is

QC 2833

C 130.46μF

V rms 2 (60)(240)

2 2

67

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