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Chapter 8

Steady Incompressible
Flow in Pressure Conduits
Energy Equation for Real Incompressible
Fluid under steady state

𝑝1 𝑉12 𝑝2 𝑉22
• 𝑧1 + + = 𝑧2 + + + ℎ𝐿 (4.9)
𝛾 2𝑔 𝛾 2𝑔
• Isothermal conditions are assumed to eliminate
thermodynamic effects

• Energy Equation for ideal Incompressible Fluid under


steady state
𝑝1 𝑉12 𝑝2 𝑉22
• 𝑧1 + + = 𝑧2 + + (4.10)
𝛾 2𝑔 𝛾 2𝑔
• Bernoulli’s Theorem
8.1 Laminar and Turbulent Flow
• For laminar flow n = 1, hL varies
as V
• For turbulent flow, n = 1.75 for
very smooth pipes and n = 2.00
for rough pipes
• If the velocity is reduced from a
high value, the line BC will not be
retraced. Instead, the points lie
along curve CA
• Point B is known as the higher
critical point, and A as lower
critical point.
• However, velocity is not only the
factor which discriminate laminar
and turbulent flow. The criterion
is Reynolds number,
𝐷𝑉𝜌 𝐷𝑉
• 𝑅𝑁 = = (8.1)
𝜇 ν
• RN is dimensionless
8.2 Critical Reynolds Number
• Critical Reynolds Number has no definite value
• However, for normal cases of flow in straight pipes of uniform
diameter and usual roughness, the critical value may be taken as
RN = 2,000
• For water at 20oC the kinematic viscosity is 1.00 x 10-6 m2/s, and
for this case the critical Reynolds number is obtained when
• 𝐷𝑉𝑐𝑟𝑖𝑡 = 𝑅𝑁 ν = 2,000 𝑋 10−6 = 0.002 m2/s
• Thus, for a pipe 25 mm in diameter,
0.002
• 𝑉𝑐𝑟𝑖𝑡 = = 0.08 m/s
0.025
• Or if the velocity were 0.8 m/s the diameter would be only 2.5
mm. Velocities or pipe diameters as small as these are not often
encountered with water flowing in practical engineering. Thus
often flow is turbulent in nature except for very viscous oils
Example 8.1
• An oil (s = 0.85, ν = 1.8 x 10-5 m2/s) flows in a
10-cm-diameter pipe at 0.50 L/s. Is the flow
laminar or turbulent?

• Solution:
𝑄 0.0005
• 𝑉= = = 0.0637 m/s
𝐴 𝜋×0.052
𝐷𝑉 0.10 𝑋 0.067
• 𝑅𝑁 = = −5 = 354
ν 1.8 𝑋10
• Since 𝑅𝑁 < 2,000, the flow is laminar.
8.3 Hydraulic Radius
• For conduits having noncircular cross sections, some value other than the
diameter must be used for the linear dimension in the Reynolds number. Such a
characteristics is the hydraulic radius, defined as
𝐴
𝑅ℎ = (8.2)
𝑃
• Where A is the cross-sectional area of the flowing fluid, and P is the wetted
perimeter, that portion of the perimeter of the cross section where there is
contact between fluid and solid boundary. For circular pipe flowing full,
𝜋𝑟2 𝑟 𝐷
• 𝑅ℎ = = , 𝑜𝑟 𝑜𝑟 𝐷 = 4𝑅ℎ
2𝜋𝑟 2 4
• Thus Rh is not the radius of the pipe, and hence the term “radius” is misleading.
• 𝑅ℎ is a convenient means for expressing the shape as well as the size of a
conduit, since for the same cross-sectional area the value of 𝑅ℎ will vary with
the shape.

• For noncircular conduits substitute 4Rh for D in Eq. (8.1) to evaluate Reynolds
number
Friction Coefficient, f
• For Laminar flow 𝑓 = 64/𝑅𝑁 (8.23)
• For turbulent flow f is not fully understood
yet. All is available from experimentation.
8.11 Pipe Roughness (e)
• The degree of unevenness on the internal pipe
surface is called pipe roughness/absolute
roughness.
• e/D is called relative roughness, where D is
the pipe diameter.
Nominal thickness of the viscous sublayer (δl)
and Absolute roughness (e)
f-values for different types of flows
8.12 Chart for Friction Factor
The chart shows four zones: 1-Laminar flow zone, 2-Critical range zone, not certain about flow type, 3-Transition zone,
where value depends upon RN and e/D both, 4-Complete turbulence zone, f only depends upon e/D. For new smooth pipes,
accuracy is ±5% and that new rough pipes ±10%. f is not known before the time. It usually ranges from 0.01 to 0.07.
e/D-Values e-Values
Example 8.4
8.14 Empirical Equation For Pipe Flow
• The presentation of friction loss in pipes given in sections 8.1 to 8.12
incorporates the best knowledge available on this subject, as far as
application to Newtonian fluids (Sec. 1.11).
• Some empirical design formulas have been developed, applicable only
to specific fluids and conditions but very convenient in a certain range.
• For example Hazen Williams formula, applicable only to the flow of
water in pipes larger than 5 cm and at velocities less than 3 m/s, but
widely used in the waterworks industry. This formula is given in the form
.63 0.54
• English units: 𝑉 = 0.85𝐶𝐻𝑊 𝑅ℎ 𝑆 0

• Where Rh (m) is the hydraulic radius, and S = hL/L, the energy gradient.
The advantage of this formula over the standard pipe-friction formula is
that the roughness coefficient CHW is not a function of the RN and trial
solutions are therefore eliminated.
• Another empirical formula is the Manning formula, which is
1 2/3
• 𝑉 = 𝑅ℎ . 𝑆 1Τ2
𝑛
8.15 Minor Losses In Turbulent Flow
• Losses due to the local disturbances of the
flow in conduits such as changes in cross
section, projecting gaskets, elbows, valves,
and similar items are called minor losses. In
the case of a very long pipe or channel, these
are usually insignificant in comparison with
the fluid friction in the length considered. But
if the length is short, these so called minor
losses may be major losses.
• Minor losses are expressed as kV2/2g, where k
must be determined for each case.
𝑝1 𝑉12 𝑝2 𝑉22
𝑧1 + + = 𝑧2 + + + ℎ𝑒′ + ℎ𝐿
𝛾 2𝑔 𝛾 2𝑔
𝑝1 𝑉12 𝑝3 𝑉32
𝑧1 + + = 𝑧3 + + + ℎ𝐿 + ℎ𝑛′
𝛾 2𝑔 𝛾 2𝑔
• 𝐴3 𝑉3 = 𝐴2 𝑉2
𝐴2
• 𝑉3 = 𝑉
𝐴3 2
𝐴
• 𝑉3 = 𝐴2 𝑉2
3
𝐴
• 𝑉32 = (𝐴2 )2 𝑉22
3

𝑉32 𝐴2 2 𝑉22
• = (𝐴 ) 2𝑔
2𝑔 3

𝑉32 𝜋Τ4.𝐷22 2 𝑉22


• = (𝜋Τ4.𝐷2) 2𝑔
2𝑔 3

𝑉32 𝐷22 2 𝑉22


• = (𝐷2) 2𝑔
2𝑔 3

𝑉32 𝐷2 4 𝑉22
• 2𝑔
= (𝐷 ) 2𝑔
3
𝑝1 𝑉12 𝑝2 𝑉22
𝑧1 + + = 𝑧2 + + + ℎ𝐿
𝛾 2𝑔 𝛾 2𝑔
𝑝0 𝑉02 ′
𝑝3 𝑉32
𝑧0 + + − ℎ𝑒 − ℎ𝐿1 + ℎ𝑝 − ℎ𝐿2 = 𝑧3 + +
𝛾 2𝑔 𝛾 2𝑔
𝑝0 𝑉02 𝑝1 𝑉1
2
𝑧0 + + − ℎ𝑒′ − ℎ𝐿1 = 𝑧1 + +
𝛾 2𝑔 𝛾 2𝑔
8.25 Pipes In Series
• ℎ = ℎ𝐿1 + ℎ𝐿2 + ℎ𝐿3 + ⋯ + ℎ𝐿𝑛
• 𝑄1 = 𝑄2 = 𝑄3 = … = 𝑄𝑛
8.26 Pipes In Parallel
• 𝑄 = 𝑄1 + 𝑄2 + 𝑄3 (8.60)
• ℎ = ℎ𝐿1 = ℎ𝐿2 = ℎ𝐿3 (8.61)
Head loss equation in Q form
𝐿 𝑉2
• ℎ𝐿 = 𝑓
𝐷 2𝑔
𝐿 𝑄2 1
= 𝑓
𝐷 𝐴2 2𝑔
𝐿 𝑄2 1
= 𝑓 π𝐷2 2 2𝑔
𝐷
4
1 𝐿 2
= 𝑓 5𝑄
12.1 𝐷
• In Book 2: 𝑓 = 4𝑓
1 𝐿 2
• ℎ𝐿 = 𝑓 5𝑄
3 𝐷
• H = hL1 + hL2 • H = hL1 + hL3
• H = hL1 + hL3 • H = hL2 + hL3
• hL2 = hL3 • hL1 = hL2
• Q1 = Q2 + Q3 • Q1 + Q2 = Q3
For long pipe (𝐿 > 1000𝐷) minor
losses may be neglected

𝑝1 𝑉12 𝑝2 𝑉22
𝑍1 + + − ℎ𝐿𝐴 − ℎ𝐿𝐶 = 𝑍2 + + 2𝑔
𝛾 2𝑔 𝛾
𝑝1 𝑉12 𝑝𝑝 𝑉𝑝2
𝑍1 + + − ℎ𝐿𝐴 = 𝑍𝑝 + + 2𝑔
𝛾 2𝑔 𝛾
Assignment # 6
• Book 1: Examples 8.1, 8.4 to 8.9
• Book 2: Examples 14.1, 14.3 to 14.10