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by Md.

Esraz-Ul-Zannat, 2016
URP 4141: Environmental Planning and Management

Environmental Management:
Measure and Monitoring

September 26, 2016

Md. Esraz-Ul-Zannat
Assistant Professor
Department of Urban and Regional Planning
Khulna University of Engineering & Technology

by Md. Esraz-Ul-Zannat, 2016


These slides are aggregations for better understanding of the
topic mentioned in the previous slide . I acknowledge the
contribution of all the authors and photographers from where I
tried to accumulate the info and used for better presentation.

Acknowledgement 3

by Md. Esraz-Ul-Zannat, 2016


 To introduce with the different
general EIA Measures and Monitoring options and some
industry specific measures and controls.

Objectives of the Class 4

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 Introduction
 Possible Mitigation Measures
 Environmental Management Plan (EMP)
 Project Siting
 Plant Construction and Operation
 Air Pollution During Site Preparation & Construction
 Minitgation measures for Air Pollution During Site Preparation &
Construction
 Specific Control Measures of Air Pollutants
 Development of Green Belt as Mitigation Measures
 Guiding Principles for Green Belt Development
 Surface Water Pollution During Site Preparation and Construction
 Water Pollution: ground water
 Post Project Monitoring
 Procedures during monitoring
 Post-Audit

Topics to be Covered by this Presentation 5

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 The major objective and benefit of utilizing EIAs in project
planning is to prevent avoidable losses of environmental
resources and values. This is done through the
development of a judicious and appropriate environmental
management plan (EMP). Environmental management
includes protection, mitigation, and enhancement measures
as well as monitoring.

Introduction 6

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In the process of planning, it is essential for every project to
formulate an EMP to ensure that resources are used with
maximum efficiency, and that each of the adverse impacts
identified and evaluated as "significant'' be prevented,
attenuated, or, when required, compensated. Possible mitigation
measures include:
 Changing project sites, routes, production technology, raw materials,
disposal methods, engineering designs, safety requirements;
 Introducing pollution controls, recycling and conservation of
resources, waste treatment, monitoring, phased implementation,
landscaping, inclusion of a plan for developing a green belt in an
industrial plant site development, personnel training, special social
services or community awareness and education;
 Devising compensatory measures for restoration of damaged
resources, monetary compensations for affected persons, offsite
programmes to enhance some other aspects of the environment or
quality of life for the community.

Possible Mitigation Measures 7

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 Usually EMPs are evolved following the processes of scoping,
IEE, and/or detailed EIA, and consist of identification,
prediction, and assessments. EMP can include several
technological and managerial interventions such as:
 Recycling and conservation of resources;
 Pollution control measures;
 Phased implementation;
 Monitoring;
 Personnel training;
 Landscaping (e.g., inclusion of a plan for developing a green
belt around industry);
 Devising compensatory measures for restoration of damaged
resources;
 Monetary compensations for affected persons;
 Off-site programmes to enhance some other aspects of the
environment or quality of life for the community.

Environmental Management Plan (EMP) 8

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 During project sitting, it should be ensured that alternative sites
be selected in the event of the project being located in any of
the following areas:
 Ecologically sensitive habitats such as mangroves, estuaries,
wetlands, coral reefs, etc.;· watercourses, causing their
eventual degradation;
 Areas where meteorological and topographic conditions are
conducive to temperature inversions and air pollution
episodes;
 Areas with significant environmental problems (air, water, and
noise pollution);
 Areas with proximity to human settlements, resulting in
impacts on human health.

Project Siting 9

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 Sitting should ideally be done in an area with proximity to raw
materials, local workforce, and transportation facilities. Sites
selected should fulfill the following conditions:
 Plot size should be sufficient for landfill or disposal on-site, or
should be close to suitable disposal site(s);·
 Should be convenient for public/private contractors to collect
solid wastes for disposal;
 Plot should be situated on a watercourse having maximum
water dilution and absorbing capacity;
 Situated in an area where wastewater can be reused, with
minimal treatment, for agricultural or industrial purposes;
 Situated within an area that is able to accept plant wastes in
their sewage treatment system.

Project Siting 10

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When possible, the project should be located in industrial zones
where there is provision of adequate water supply,
sewerage, and wastewater treatment facilities. Industries with
gaseous emissions should be located at high elevations in an
area not subject to temperature inversions, and where the
prevailing winds are towards relatively unpopulated areas.
Transport sector studies should be prepared and safe transport
routes selected to reduce likely impacts from spillage.
Contingency measures for spillages should be drafted.

Project Siting 11

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 The subsequent stages of construction and operation will now
be examined for potential issues, and relevant mitigation
measures for each issue will be listed. These stages will be
examined for significant issues related to:
 Air pollution;
 Water pollution;
 Noise pollution;
 Solid and hazardous waste pollution;
 Socio-economic status;
 Hazards;
 Associated impacts (urbanization, transportation, and
resource depletion)

Plant Construction and Operation 12

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 Air pollution due to dust and particulates caused by:
 Land clearing, grading, leveling, surface excavation;
 Surfacing and paving;
 Construction traffic;
 Construction of the plant buildings and roads;
 Quarrying and mining (where applicable);
 Blasting and drilling (for mining activities);
 Storage of raw materials/waste in piles.

Air Pollution During Site Preparation & Construction 13

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 The recommended mitigation measures are:
 Proper blasting practices (such as controlled blasting) to
minimize airborne particulates;
 Watering of haulage roads;
 Application of sealants and dust suppressants;
 Limiting earth movement and soil exposure to the dry season;
 Balance cut with fill;
 Resurface and revegetate exposed surfaces.

Miigation Measures:
Air Pollution During Site Preparation & Construction 14

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 Air pollution due to dust and emissions such as SOx, NOx,
hydrocarbons, and particulate matter caused by:
 Gaseous emissions from processes, energy production;
 Possible accidents, hazards, and process malfunctions;
 Plant operations such as crushing, material handling;
 Kilns, clinker coolers in case of cement industry;
 Transportation of raw materials, products, etc.

Air Pollution During Plant Operation: Causes 15

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 Some basic housekeeping measures recommended for
mitigating the above issues for all types of industries are:
 Classify emission sources according to their geographical
location to ensure dispersal of pollutants over the airshed;·
 Reduce discharges of fumes through use of fume collection
systems and suction hoods at the point of emission and
enclosed structures and buildings;
 Prevent dust and particulates by using control systems such
as mechanical dust collectors, electrostatic precipitators,
filters, or high energy scrubbers, by conducting dust-
generating operations in enclosed structures and buildings, by
covering dry material during transportation, by installing wet-
spray to minimize dust generation, and by installing
hydrocarbon vapour control at all fuel transfer points.

Miigation Measures:
Air Pollution During Plant Operation 16

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 Specific control measures that may be adopted for each type of
air pollutant are listed below.
1. Suspended particulate matter (SPM): (i) control of SPM using
electrostatic precipitators, bag filters, or cyclones at the point of
emission; (ii) in coal mining, SPM levels can be reduced by
conducting coal beneficiation; and (iii) mitigation of SPM in the
ambient environment can also be done by developing a green belt.
2. Oxides of sulphur (SOx) levels in emissions may be controlled by
flue gas desulphurization and the double contact double
absorption process.
3. Oxides of nitrogen (NOx) can be controlled by modification of
combustion and use of catalytic converters.
4. Fluorine can be controlled by scrubbing the reactor vapour and
evaporator vapour during fertilizer manufacture.
5. Carbon monoxide (CO) emissions may be controlled by stripping,
recycling, and reusing the gas released from coke production and
fuel burning. Other control measures include use of a CO boiler,
combustion of CO, use of ESP or multiple cyclones.

Specific Control Measures of Air Pollutants 17

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 Specific control measures that may be adopted for each type of
air pollutant are listed below.
6. Hydrocarbons (HC): for control of HC released from solvents and
amines (especially in petrochemical industry) closed circuit
recovery units may be provided. Source control measures that
may be adopted to reduce HC and odours are vapour recovery
systems, pressure tanks, floating-roof tanks, and vapour
incineration.
7. Hydrogen sulphide (H2S) control is possible through
ethanolamine absorption and by sulphur recovery.
8. Mercaptans can be controlled by steam scrubbing, neutralization,
incineration, and conversion to disulphides.
9. Ammonia (NH3) emissions may be controlled through conversion
to ammonium sulphate, oxidation of the gas, or by gas
incineration.

Specific Control Measures of Air Pollutants 18

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All the mitigation measures identified thus far have been impact
specific. However, one mitigation measure that has a much
broader definition, in as much as it can be used to alleviate a
number of adverse impacts due to industries, is the development
of a green belt around industrial facilities. In addition to pollution
control measures, the negative impacts due to industrial
development should be further attenuated by the development of
green belt. Green belts not only absorb air and water pollutants
but also help in arresting noise and soil erosion, and creating
favorable aesthetic conditions.

Development of Green Belt as Mitigation Measures 19

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Development of Green Belt as Mitigation Measures 20

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1. Selection of Plant Species
 Plant species should be fast growing, perennial, and evergreen
with thick canopy cover, large leaf index, and resistant to
specified pollutants.
 Plant species should preferably be indigenous so that the
ecological balance in the region could be preserved.
2. Placement of plant species
 Trees growing up to 10 m or more should be placed in encircling
rows around the installation along road sides.
 Shrubs should be grown amongst the trees to give coverage to
the tree trunks normally devoid of foliage.
 Differential zones for shrubs and trees could also be defined
based on wind speed and stability conditions.
 Sensitive species should be placed in patches along the entire
green belt.
3. Maintenance of green belt
 Wastewater from the industry should preferably be recycled for
maintaining the green belt.
Guiding Principles for Green Belt Development 21

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Water pollution in the form of suspended matter caused by the
run-off from the clearing and construction activity during the
erection of a facility.
Mitigation Measures
 Control required of stormwater run-off and prompt
revegetation on disturbed areas.
 Disturbance of streams, drainage, ponds, and wetlands to be
avoided.
 Where disturbance cannot be avoided, sediment control
structures and practices to be used.
 Sedimentation basins should be provided.
 Receiving surfaces should be lined with stones or concrete.

Surface Water Pollution


During Site Preparation and Construction 22

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Resuspension of toxic sediments during construction of offshore
pipelines.
Mitigation Measures
 Alternative location for laying pipeline to be
selected.· Alternative pipeline construction techniques to
minimize resuspension of sediments (e.g., laying pipeline
versus burying pipeline) during construction of pipelines.
 The pipeline should be laid at a period of minimal circulation.
 Erosion, run-off, and sedimentation from construction of
pipeline, grading for access roads and substation facilities.

Surface Water Pollution


During Site Preparation and Construction 23

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Contamination of groundwater due to leaching from tailing ponds
in mining areas, waste disposal sites, run-off from storage piles
leading to percolation to groundwater.
Mitigation Measures
 Groundwater contamination maybe minimized or prevented
wherever possible by using secure lined disposal facilities and
establishing monitoring systems for leakages and using a
leachate collection system and an on-site chemical treatment
before discharge.
 In the case of mining projects, special care should be taken to
prevent groundwater contamination by avoiding or minimizing
penetration of aquifers below the strata being mined and by
properly casing or sealing drill holes outside or below the mine
area.

Water Pollution: Ground Water 24

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 Monitoring is required to evaluate the success or failure
(consequent benefits and loses) of environmental management
measures and subsequently reorient the management plan.
 It is essential that a good detailed monitoring programme be
designed for appropriate projects (this design should be
prepared as part of the EIA study and should be presented as
a major component of the report including the detailed
monitoring workplan, reporting procedure, and manpower and
costs budgets) and that regular monitoring reports be
submitted to environmental agencies. When these procedural
needs are fulfilled, the EIA planning tool is put to use in a much
more effective manner, and benefit analysis will be possible,
which will determine how successful the EIA process is in
preventing or minimizing environmental degradation.

Post Project Monitoring 25

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Operations Definitions

Monitoring Long-term, standardized measurement, observation,


evaluation, and reporting of part of the environment in
order to define status and trends
Survey A finite duration, intensive programme to measure,
evaluate, and report the quality of part of the
environment for a specific purpose
Surveillance Continuous, specific measurement, observation, and
reporting for the purpose of environmental management
and operational activities

Procedures During Monitoring 26

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 Monitoring may involve sampling of air, water, and soil, and the
data collection programme should be planned to obtain the
greatest value from the data, which is often expensive to
collect and process. Care should be taken to classify and store
data for easy retrieval, so that it can be useful as baseline or
reference data for other assessments.
 In the few retrospective studies made, the findings have been
disconcerting. Forecasts are admittedly difficult, but they are
often so imprecise and vague that their accuracy cannot really
be ascertained. Many impacts are presented as unquantified
assertions without any indication of their likelihood or
significance. Not surprisingly, physiographic information is
usually more complete and precise than biological impact
prediction. Social considerations often occupy disproportionate
space (in terms of what is actually known) in an EIA, but that is
a reflection of the essential political use of these documents.

Procedures During Monitoring 27

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The post-audit can begin at once with existing EIAs on completed
projects. It is a valuable training device and also helps to find
empirical evidence for cause-effect relationships that will be
useful in ongoing and future EIAs. Post-audit may be difficult in
that the performers of past EIAs are being second guessed.
Therefore, it should be carried out by a group independent of the
environmental agencies, perhaps a panel drawn from the
academic community.

Post-Audit 28

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The post-implementation monitoring of a project may involve
audits which are somewhat different from the industrial audit.
Three types of audit relevant to an EIA on a motorway project are
listed here as an example:
 Implementation audits, for determining whether the
recommendations or requirements in an EIA were
implemented;
 Project impact audits, which determine the actual impacts of a
project, independent of the predictions made, and
 Predictive techniques audits, assessing the predictions made
in the EIA report, and the methods of prediction used, by
comparing actual outcome with the forecast ones (this would
aid future studies).

Post-Audit 29

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 Introduction
 Possible Mitigation Measures
 Environmental Management Plan (EMP)
 Project Siting
 Plant Construction and Operation
 Air Pollution During Site Preparation & Construction
 Minitgation measures for Air Pollution During Site Preparation &
Construction
 Specific Control Measures of Air Pollutants
 Development of Green Belt as Mitigation Measures
 Guiding Principles for Green Belt Development
 Surface Water Pollution During Site Preparation and Construction
 Water Pollution: ground water
 Post Project Monitoring
 Procedures during monitoring
 Post-Audit

What We have Covered…. 30

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 Understanding the different general EIA Measures and
Monitoring options and some industry specific measures and
controls.

What We Learnt 31

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