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Identification & control

of Conical tank with

SHIVANKY JAISWAL
176557
WHY level control????
• The control of fluid level in tanks is a essential issues in process industries.
• There is a necessitate to control a Level due to the fact that if the level is excessively
high may annoy its reaction equilibrium of the entire methodology which may cause harm
to equipment, or bring out spillage of profitable or risky material from the process.
• If the event that the level is excessively low, it may have terrible results for the sequential
operation completed by the process .
• The conical tank shows its nonlinearity because of its shape,
nonlinear dynamic behavior, uncertain and time varying parameters,
constraints on manipulated variable, interaction between
manipulated and controlled variables, unmeasured and frequent
disturbances, dead time on input and measurements.

• Design a controller for a nonlinear process is perplexing and

excessively hard
to implement it.
Introduction
• The control of nonlinear process is the main problem in process industries which repeatedly show its
nonlinear activity.
• In this seminar the control action of nonlinear framework using Digital controller with Deadbeat
Algorithm is presented.
• The Nonlinear process which has been considered for its application is conical tank system.
• Simulation is carried out by the MATLAB software and its servo and regulatory operation is resolved.
• Because of its conical shape contributes better drainage for solid mixtures, slurries and viscous
liquids.
• So, control of conical tank level is a challenging task due to its non-linearity and continually
varying cross-section. This is due to relationship between controlled variable level and manipulated
variable flow rate, which has a square root relationship.
Non-linear dynamic mathematical model
• The mathematical model of the conical tank is deciding by considering two assumptions
(i) by taking level as the control variable and
(ii) inflow to the tank as the manipulated variable

qi - Tank Inflow rate

q0 - Tank Outflow rate
H - Total height of conical tank.
D - Conical Tank Top diameter
h - Nominal level of tank
d - diameter at nominal level of tank
R – valve resistance
• Mass balance Equation is given by
𝑑𝑣
𝜌𝑞𝐼 − 𝜌𝑞𝑂 = 𝜌
𝑑𝑡

• Volume at level h
2
ℎ𝜋𝑑 2 𝜋ℎ 𝐷ℎ
𝑣= = = 𝐾 ′′ ℎ3
12 12 𝐻
• Then
ℎ 𝑑(ℎ 3)
𝑞𝐼 − = 𝐾 ′′
𝑅 𝑑𝑡
• At steady state the above equation becomes
ℎ𝑠 𝑑(ℎ 3)
𝑠
𝑞𝐼𝑠 − = 𝐾 ′′
𝑅 𝑑𝑡
• Introducing the non-linearity in resistance and apply taylor’s expansion
𝐶𝐷 2 ′′
𝑑(ℎ − ℎ𝑠 )
(𝑞𝐼 −𝑞𝐼𝑠 ) − (ℎ − ℎ𝑠 ) = 3ℎ𝑠 𝐾
2 ℎ 𝑑𝑡
• Introducing deviation variables:
𝐶𝐷 𝑑𝐻
𝑄𝐼 − 𝐻 = 3ℎ𝑠2 𝐾 ′′
2 ℎ 𝑑𝑡

• Taking Laplace transform and rearranging the Transfer Function, we obtain:

𝟐 𝒉𝒔
𝑯(𝒔) 𝑪𝒅 𝑲
= =
𝑸𝑰 (𝒔) 𝒉𝟐𝒔 𝝅𝑫𝟐 𝟐 𝒉𝒔 𝝉𝒔 + 𝟏
𝒔+𝟏
𝟒𝑯𝟐 𝑪𝒅

• In discrete-time control theory, the dead-beat control problem consists of finding what
input signal must be applied to a system in order to bring the output to the steady state
in the smallest number of time steps.
• For an Nth-order linear system it can be shown that this minimum number of steps will
be at most N (depending on the initial condition), provided that the system is null
controllable (that it can be brought to state zero by some input).
• The solution is to apply feedback such that all poles of the closed-loop transfer function
are at the origin of the z-plane. By extension, a closed loop transfer function which has
all poles of the transfer function at the origin is sometimes called a dead beat transfer
function.
• Dead beat controllers are often used in process control due to their good dynamic
properties. They are a classical feedback controller where the control gains are set using
a table based on the plant system order and normalized natural frequency.
Controller Introduction
• Desired characteristic in a control system design is a quick settling time.
• In an analog controller it takes the system output an infinite time to settle exactly to
reference input , deadbeat controller is used when a quick or finite settling time is
required.
• Deadbeat controller reaches a steady state in n+1 samples where n is the order of
controller.
• Deadbeat controller cancels all the poles of the system and replaces them with poles
at the origin,
• Another advantage is that they require very few calculations therefore can be used in
system where synthesis must be repeated frequently
• It should be used only with stable plant processes
The deadbeat response has the following
characteristics:
• Zero steady-state error
• Minimum rise time
• Minimum settling time
• Less than 2% overshoot/undershoot
• Very high control signal output
• In dead-beat control, an effort is made to reach the setpoint as quickly as
possible and stay there. The minimum time required to reach the setpoint,
however, is the dead time of the system,
• As a result, we get the condition Gm(z) = z-k, k ≥ 1
where k = D/Ts, D is the system dead time and Ts the sampling time.

• The algorithm that requires the closed loop response to have finite settling
time, minimum rise time and zero steady state error is referred to as a
• Deadbeat controllers are often used in process control due to their good
dynamic properties.
2.Deadbeat or Minimal Prototype controller
This control - law is designed such that the output(sam pled values)
no error at the frist sampling following a set point change :
we have
 HG(z)D(z) 
y(z)  y sp (z)
1  HG(z)D(z)
 1
Let y sp  -1
step - change
1- z
we want
 z -1
y( z )  ex.y(t) goes to 1 after one sampling
1 - z -1
solving for D(z) :
1 z -1
D(z) 
HG(z) 1 - z -1
Possible responses :
 HG(z)D(z) 
y (z)  y sp (z)
1  HG(z)D(z)
1
1 z
y sp  z   1
;yˆ z  1
1 z 1 z
ˆ ( z)
y z 1 HG(z)D(z)
 
y sp  z  1 1  HG(z)D(z)
-1
z HG(z)D(z)
-1

1-z 1
z -1 1
D z 
1-z -1 HG(z)
Simulation result obtained using tunning of
IMC PID
Simulation result obtained using Deadbeat
controller
CONCLUSION
• The controlling of nonlinear process is a challenging task. The nonlinearity of the
conical tank is analyzed.

• Modelling and transfer function of the system is done by using 1st principle technique.
Open loop step test method is used to find the proportional gain, delay time and dead
time. Here Taylor series approximation is used for the non linear approximation
because of accuracy compared to other non linear approximation technique.
References
• “Design of Deadbeat Algorithm for a Nonlinear Conical tank system
Marshiana. Da* , Thirusakthi murugan” 3rd International Conference on Recent Trends
in Computing 2015 (ICRTC-2015) Science Direct.
• “A new autotuning algorithm for PID controllers using dead-beat format” R.
Bandopadhyay , Dr. Patranabis, ISA Transactions 40(2001) 255-266.
• “Experimental validation of a Nonlinear Model based Control scheme on the
Variable area tank process” S. Kapil Arasu, Atanu Panda, J. Prakash IFAC-Papers OnLine
49-1 (2016) 030–034, Science Direct.
• “Model based Controller Design for Conical Tank System” D.Angeline , K.Vivetha ,
International Journal of Computer Applications (0975 – 8887) Volume 85 – No 12, January
2014
• “Deadbeat Response Design” – NPTEL
• “Digital Control” Kannan M. Moudgalya Indian Institute of Technology, Bombay