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Presented by SARIM UR REHMAN

PROJECT OF ENGLISH
Figurative devices

 Simile
 metaphor
 personification
 Onomatopoeia
 Alliteration
 Synecdoche
 Idioms
 Tautology
 Consonance
 Litotes
Definition of Simile

 A simile is a figure of speech that


makes a comparison, showing
similarities between two different
things. Unlike a metaphor, a simile
draws resemblance with the help
of the words “like” or “as.”
Therefore, it is a direct
comparison.
Common examples of Simile
 He is as funny as a monkey.
 The history paper was as tricky as a labyrinth.
 His opponent was trying to infuriate him, but he
remained as cool as cucumber.
 The laborer remained busy at work all day long, and
slept like a log that night.
 The audience listened to his spellbinding speech as
quietly as mice.
 The young athlete looked as strong as an ox.
 The student moved as fast as lightning after getting
permission from the teacher for an early release.
 The beggar on the road looked as blind as a bat.
 When the examination finished, the candidate felt as
light as a feather.
Definition of Metaphor

 Metaphor is a figure of speech that


makes an implicit, implied, or
hidden comparison between two
things that are unrelated, but which
share some common characteristics.
In other words, a resemblance of two
contradictory or different objects is
made based on a single or some
common characteristics.
Common examples of Metaphor

 The skies of his future began to darken. (Darkness is a


threat; therefore, this implies that the coming times
are going to be hard for him.)
 Her voice is music to his ears. (This implies that her
voice makes him feel happy)
 He saw the soul of dust when passing through the dust
storm.
 Chaos is the breeding ground of order.
 War is the mother of all battles.
 Her dance is a great poem.
 A new road to freedom passes through this valley of
death.
 My conscience is my barometer.
 His white face shows his concern.
 Words are daggers when spoken in anger.
Definition of Personification

 Personification is a figure of
speech in which a thing – an idea or an
animal – is given human attributes.
The non-human objects are portrayed
in such a way that we feel they have
the ability to act like human beings.
for example, when we say, “the sky
weeps,” we are giving the sky the
ability to cry, which is a human
quality. Thus, we can say that the
sky has been personified in the given
sentence.
Examples of Personification
 he shadow of the moon danced on the lake.
 There was a heavy thunderstorm, the wind snorted outside,
rattling my windowpanes.
 The flowers were blooming, and the bees kissed them every
now and then.
 The flood raged over the entire village.
 The tread of time is so ruthless that it tramples even the
kings under its feet.
 It was early morning – I met a cat yawning and stretching in
the street.
 The skyscraper was so tall that it seemed to kiss the sky.
 The tree was pulled down, and the birds lamented over its
dead body.
 The tall pines in the hilly area fondled the clouds.
 The long road to his home was a twisting snake, with no visible
end.
Definition of Onomatopoeia

 Onomatopoeia, pronounced on-uh-


mat-uh–pee–uh, is defined as a word
which imitates the natural sounds
of a thing. It creates a sound
effect that mimics the thing
described, making the description
more expressive and interesting.
Examples of Onomatopoeia

 The buzzing bee flew away.


 The sack fell into the river with a splash.
 The books fell on the table with a loud thump.
 He looked at the roaring
 The rustling leaves kept me awake.
 The flag flapped in wind.
 Did you forget to flush the toilet?
 Daryl gargled the mouthwash.
 The wounded soldier groaned.
 As Tom got closer, the dog began growling.
Definition of Alliteration

 alliteration is derived from latin’s


“Latira”. it means “letters of
alphabet”. it is a stylistic device in
which a number of words, having
the same first consonant sound,
occur close together in a series.
Common examples of Alliteration

 Come and clean the chaos in your closet.


 The big, bad bear scared all the baby bunnies by the
bushes.
 Shut the shutters before the banging sound makes you
shudder.
 Go and gather the green leaves on the grass.
 Please put away your paints and practice the piano.
 Round and round she ran until she realized she was
running round and round.
 I had to hurry home where grandma was waiting for her
waffles.
 The boy buzzed around as busy as a bee.
 Garry grumpily gathered the garbage.
 Those lazy lizards are lying like lumps in the leaves.
Definition of Synecdoche

 Synecdoche is a literary device in


which a part of something represents
the whole, or it may use a whole to
represent a part. Synecdoche may
also use larger groups to refer to
smaller groups, or vice versa. It may
also call a thing by the name of the
material it is made of, or it may refer
to a thing in a container or
packaging by the name of that
container or packing.
Examples of Synecdoche
 He does not know how to behave with the special people.
 He is looking at his own grey hair and his agility.
 They saw a fleet of fifty.
 At this time, he owns nine head of cattle.
 The new generation is addicted to the use of plastic money.
The Rime of the Ancient Mariner (By Samuel Taylor Coleridge)
 “the western wave was all a-flame.
The day was well was nigh done!
Almost upon the western wave
rested the broad bright sun”
Sonnet 116 (By William Shakespeare)
 “o no! it is an ever-fixed mark
that looks on tempests and is never shaken.”
the phrase “ever-fixed mark” refers to a lighthouse.
Ozymandias (By Percy Bysshe Shelly)
 “tell that its sculptor well those passions read
Which yet survive, stamped on these lifeless things,
the hand that mocked them.”
“the hand” in these lines refers to the sculptor, who carved the “lifeless
things” into a grand statue.
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The Secret Sharer (By Joseph Conrad)
 “at midnight i went on deck, and to my mate’s great
surprise put the ship round on the other tack. His
terrible whiskers flitted round me in silent
criticism.”
the word “whiskers” mentioned in the above lines
refers to the whole face of the narrator’s mate.
The Description of the Morning (By Jonathan Swift)
 “prepar’d to scrub the entry and the stairs.
the youth with broomy stumps began to trace.”
in the above lines, the phrase “broomy stumps”
refers to the whole broom.
Definition of idioms

 The term idiom refers to a set


expression or a phrase comprising
two or more words. An interesting
fact regarding the device is that the
expression is not interpreted
literally. The phrase is understood
to mean something quite different
from what individual words of the
phrase would imply. Alternatively, it
can be said that the phrase is
interpreted in a figurative sense.
Further, idioms vary in different
cultures and countries.
Examples of idioms
1.A grey area – Something unclear
2.A rip-off – Too expensive
3.Add fuel to the fire – To add more to an existing
problem
4.As easy as ABC – Something is very easy
5.Call it a day – Time to quit
6.Cool as a cucumber – To be very calm under
stress
7.Crack a book – Open up a book and study
8.Down to the wire – At the last minute
9.Draw a blank – can’t remember
10.Fill in the blanks – Provide more information
Definition of tautology
 Tautology is the repetitive use of phrases or
words that have similar meanings. In simple
words, it is expressing the same thing, an idea,
or saying, two or more times. The word
tautology is derived from the Greek
word tauto, meaning “the same,” and logos,
meaning “a word or an idea.” a grammatical
tautology refers to an idea repeated within
a phrase, paragraph, or sentence to give an
impression that the writer is providing extra
information.
Common examples of tautology

Example #1:
 “Your acting is completely devoid of emotion.”
Devoid is defined as “completely empty.” Thus, completely devoid is an example of tautology.
Example #2:
 “Repeat that again,” and “reiterate again.“
To repeat or reiterate something is to do or say it again.
Example #3: Shout It Out Loud! (By Kiss)
 “Shout it, shout it, shout it out loud!”
When a person shouts, it is always aloud.
Example #4: (By Yogi Berra)
 “This is like deja vu all over again” (Yogi Berra)
The term déjà vu means to have a feeling of having previously done or experienced something, or to be doing it all over again. “ Déjà
vu all over again” is an example of tautology.
Example #5: The Wasteland (By T. S. Eliot)
 The emphatic function of tautology reveals itself in the example given below:
“To Carthage then I came
Burning burning burning burning.”
Thomas Stern Eliot shows the emphatic function of tautology, using the word “burning” repeatedly in the same line.
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Example #6: Hamlet (By William Shakespeare)
In some excerpts, tautology is used intentionally that involves derision inherent in it.
 Polonious: “What do you read, my lord?”
Hamlet: “Words, words, words.”
Here Hamlet has used words in order to show that he is lost in words that Polonius is famous in using.
Example #7: The Bells (By Edgar Allen Poe)
 “Keeping time, time, time,
In a sort of Runic rhyme…
From the bells, bells, bells, bells.”
Example #8: The Wasteland (By T. S. Eliot)
 “Twit twit twit/ Jug jug jug jug jug jug“
Example #9: The Hollow Men (By T. S. Eliot)
 “This is the way the world ends
This is the way the world ends
This is the way the world ends
Not with a bang but a whimper.”
Here, different types of tautologies have been used in a technical way of repetition, which dominates others, such as figures of speech, imitation, and ornamentation. All of above examples
might appear in the daily use of language, and also as poetic devices.
Example #10: The Holy Bible (By Various Authors)
 Unlike the artistic inspiration built into the preceding types of redundancy, here are a couple of tautology examples with psychological implications. The speakers show the
acceptance of their destiny in these types of repetition:
 “If I perish, I perish.”
(Esther 4:15)
 “If I be bereaved (of my children), I am bereaved.”
Definition of consonance

 Consonance refers to repetitive


sounds produced by consonants
within a sentence or phrase.
This repetition often takes place
in quick succession, such as in
“pitter, patter.”
Common examples of
Consonance
 The ship has sailed to the far off shore
 She ate seven sandwiches on a sunny Sunday last
year.
 Shelley sells shells by the sea sash
 “rap rejects my tape deck, ejects projectile
Whether Jew or gentile, I rank top percentile
Many styles, more powerful than gamma rays
my grammar pays, like carlos santana plays.”
 ” ‘t was later when the summer went
Than when the cricket came,
And yet we knew that gentle clock
Meant nought but going home.
‘t was sooner when the cricket went
Than when the winter came,
Yet that pathetic pendulum
Keeps esoteric time.”
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 “great, or good, or kind, or fair,
I will ne’er the more despair;
If she love me, this believe,
I will die ere she shall grieve;
If she slight me when I woo,
I can scorn and let her go;
For if she be not for me,
What care I for whom she be?”
Here, the use of consonance can be seen through in the letters r, d, and f.
This poem by Dickinson makes good use of consonance:
 “a Quietness distilled
As Twilight long begun,
Or Nature spending with herself
Sequestered Afternoon—
here, emily dickinson has relied on the consonant “n” to create the intended
effect.
 He lets the pink ball fall with a tall man.
 They have not learned how to catch the cat.
 Get a seat with a treat in our local hall.
Definition of Litotes

 Litotes, derived from a Greek word


meaning “simple,” is a figure of
speech that employs
an understatement by using double
negatives or, in other words, a
positive statement expressed by
negating its opposite expressions.
Examples of litotes
 They do not seem the happiest couple around.
 The ice cream was not too bad.
 New York is not an ordinary city.
 Your comments on politics are not useless.
 You are not as young as you used to be.
 I cannot disagree with your point of view.
 William Shakespeare was not a bad
playwright at all.
 He is not the cleverest person I have ever
met.
 She is not unlike her mother.
 Ken Adams is not an ordinary man
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