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8.

STONE

1. USES
2. TYPES
3. FACTORS FOR SELECTION OF STONE
4. DURABILITY ISSUES
5. CAST STONE
• Building Stone

• Aggregates in
– Concrete
– Bitumen

• Dressed Stone
– Ashlar
1. USES

* Load-bearing masonry:
standard or randomly sized blocks

*Cladding:
40 to 75 mm slabs fixed to the structure
(e.g. Portland stone on Renold Building
(recently painted white!))
2. TYPES

The following broad classes in the UK:

Limestones

Sandstones

Slate

(Granite)

(Marble)
3. FACTORS FOR SELECTION OF STONE

(a) Identification:
Stone type.
Stone from the same quarry used for repair
and restoration of heritage buildings

(b) Colour & texture:


Change on ageing and wetting/drying
(c) Durability:
“Weathering” – degradation of the stone
(d) Bed depth:
The depth of the beds in which the stone laid down limits size
Of units that can be cut.

Note:
Strength usually more than adequate
4. DURABILITY ISSUES
Weathering –
Main cause of weathering in any stone is crystallisation of soluble salts
WITHIN the pore structure of the stone. Stone absorbs water carrying
salts in solution. When water evaporates, salts are left behind and crystallise
JUST BEHIND THE SURFACE causing surface to spall off
(a) Limestones

Calcium carbonate CaCO3


White, grey, cream or yellow stone, often containing fossilised shells

General rules:
• stone with a high proportion of very fine pores LESS
durable than stone with mainly coarse pores.
• All carbonates soluble in acids. Limestone deteriorates in acid rain

Castle Coole, Co Fermanagh

Or see any building in Bristol – they look like melted ice


(b) Sandstones

Consist of grains of sand (silica SiO2) cemented together by

1. Calcium carbonate (CALCAREOUS SANDSTONE)


2. Silica (SILICOUS SANDSTONE)
3. Iron oxide (FERRUGINOUS SANDSTONE)
4. Clay (ARGILLACEOUS SANDSTONE)
Performance determined by the durability of the
CEMENTING MEDIUM. If this breaks down,
grains of sand are loosened and fall away

So, of the above,


(2) most durable;
(1) less durable – CaCO3
dissolves in acid rain;
(4) least durable ;
(3) OK.
(c) Slate

Local experience important

For slate from previously unused source,


must test:
• Acid immersion
• Wetting/Drying
• Water absorption tests
5. CAST STONE

Stone dust/ small pieces mixed with cement and cast in a mould.

• Can be cast as architectural components

• Can be reinforced

• Can be cast on concrete backing

BUT it will have the material properties of…………


CEMENT
Interesting example of use of stone……

The Eddystone Lighthouse


John Smeaton (1724-1792) was a civil engineer
who designed bridges, canals and harbours as well as
lighthouses.

In order to build the Eddystone lighthouse he developed


a technique to secure granite blocks using dovetail joints
and marble dowels.

So strong were his construction techniques that when


the Victorian engineers came to remove his
tower they were forced to
leave the base – which is still standing!
Smeaton sourced the stone himself —

Cornish granite (moorstone) for exposed parts,

Portland stone (limestone) for the interior

Plymouth marble for the dowels between courses.

Preparation for each course meant trial fitting the


numbered blocks on land before shipping them to the
reef for reassembly (in a rowing boat!)
BELL ROCK LIGHTHOUSE.
ROBERT STEVENSON, BUT
SMEATON’S IDEA