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Observe the environment around the school.

Record things that you see refer to topic about
Define the term of :
1. Habitat
2. Environment
3. Abiotic
4. Biotic
5. Population
6. Community
7. Ecosystem
Ecology  the study of living things in their

Habitat  The place where an organism lives
Enviroment  everything around that could
affect its survival
a. Abiotic environment (non-living thing)
b. Biotic enviroment (Living thing)
Define the defenition of population, community and
Individual  a single organism in an
Population  a group of organisms within the
same species that live together in a habitat
Community  all the population (all the plants,
animals and microorganisms) that live in a
Ecosystem  the community of living things and
environments which interact with each other
Biome is ecosystem which form cause of
distinction of climatically and geographically
Biosphere is global sum of ecosystem or zone
live on the earth
Terrestrial biome, based on latitude, humidity, elevator:
 Desert
 Grass land (savanna)
 Tropical rain forest
 Taiga: sub arctic coniferous forest
 Tundra : arctic plain

Ecosystem consist of 2 component :
Abiotic components  Water, soil, rocks,
sand, air , light, temperature, humidity
Biotic component  plant, animal and
Based on their roles in ecosystem, biotic
component is classified into :
Producer : Organisms that produce food
(usually plant)
Consumer : organism that eats plants, other
animals or both (herbivore, carnivore and
Decomposer : organism that decompose dead
and decaying organisms (bacteria and fungi)
The various
populations in any
community live

Biotic component
Types of Species Interactions

 Predation  interaction between

two organisms (Predator and Prey)

 Competition  interaction between

two organisms that are using the
same limited resource

 Symbiosis  a close relationship between two or

more different species

Your home work!!

Find out defenition and examples of each
Work in group
• create an example of food chain and food web
(including you in a food chain)!
• Explain how the energy is transferred in food
• What is ecological Pyramids?
• Construct energy pyramid, number pyramid
and biomass pyramid from the food chain!
Food Chain
 a series of organisms through
which energy is transferred in the
form of food.

A food chain always begins with a

Energy Flow
• Energy in an ecosystem originally
comes from the sun
• Energy flows through Ecosystems
from producers to consumers
–Producers (make food)
–Consumers (use food by eating
producers or other consumers)

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• Sunlight is the main source of
energy for most life on earth.
• Producers contain chlorophyll &
can use energy directly from
the sun
Energy flows through an
ecosystem in one direction
from producers to various levels
of consumers
• Autotrophs are also called
Ex. Plants, algae & some bacteria

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Name the Producer, Consumers &
Decomposers in this food chain:

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Food web
A food web consist
of interlinked food
A pyramid of food is a composition of food
chains which the higher the level position the
lesser quantity
Trophic level  stage in a food chain
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Ecological Pyramids
Graphic Representations Of The
Relative Amounts of Energy or
Matter At Each Trophic Level
Energy Pyramid
Biomass Pyramid
Pyramid of Numbers

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Energy Pyramid

Energy flow in an ecosystem is non-cyclic. Energy is

lost to the environment as heat.
• Only about 10% of energy is stored inside the
body of an organism
Biomass Pyramid

Compare the mass of

organism present in
each trophic level at a
particular time

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Pyramid of Numbers

Compare the number of

organism present in
each trohic level at a
particular time

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1. What kind of sun energy might be used by
2. Write 3 organism belong to producer?
3. How many % of energy might be used by it own
4. What is tropic level?
5. Write the organisms
occupy first tropic and
second tropic level?
Based on the picture