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Predict pollutant concentrations at various locations

around the source.

implementation of new regulatory programs.

AREAS SURROUNDING THE SITE OF RELEASE

AIR QUALITY MODELING (AQM)

Mathematical and numerical techniques are used in AQM to

simulate the dispersion of air pollutants.

Toxic and odorous substances

Single or multiple points

Point, Area, or Volume sources

Source characteristics

Meteorological conditions

Site and surrounding conditions

AMBIENT AIR CONCENTRATION MODELING

Types of Pollutant Sources

Point Sources

• e.g., stacks or vents

Area Sources

• e.g., landfills, ponds, storage piles

Volume Sources

• e.g., conveyors, structures with multiple vents

FACTORS AFFECTING DISPERSION OF POLLUTANTS

IN THE ATMOSPHERE

Source Characteristics

Emission rate of pollutant

Stack height

Exit velocity of the gas

Exit temperature of the gas

Stack diameter

Meteorological Conditions

Wind velocity

Wind direction

Ambient temperature

Atmospheric stability

GAUSSIAN MODELS

Advantages

data

GAUSSIAN MODELS

Disadvantages

approximately 20 Km

temporal variations become predominant

SOURCES OF ERROR IN GAUSSIAN MODEL

NUMERICAL SOLUTIONS

Involves solving a system of partial differential equations

Equations mathematically represent the fate of pollutants

downwind concentration

The number of unknown parameters must be equal to

number of equations

System of equation is written in numerical form with

appropriate numerical scheme and solved using computer

codes

Classes of Numerical Models

Three Dimensional Equations (k-Theory) Model

Higher Order Closure Models (k- Type)

DIFFERENCE BETWEEN NUMERICAL MODELS AND

GAUSSIAN MODEL

The degree of completeness in the mathematical

description of the atmospheric dispersion processes

handle manually

in the description of non-transport processes like chemical

reactions

METHODS TO INCORPORATE PLUME RISE

Effective Source Height Method

Variable Plume Model Method

METHODS TO INCORPORATE PLUME RISE

Effective source height method

Independent of downwind distance, x

Effective source height,

h = hs + ∆h – ht

where,

hs = Physical chimney height

ht = Maximum terrain height between the source and receptor

Takes into account the tilt of the plume

PROBLEM

Calculate the nighttime concentration of nitrogen oxides

1 km downward of an open, burning dump if the dump

emits NOx at the rate of 4 g/sec. The wind speed is 4

m/sec at 10 m above ground level. The one-hour

average diffusion coefficients at 1 km are estimated as sy

= 70 m and sz = 50 m and the dump is assumed to be a

point source.

SOLUTION

Use Gaussian Model for ground level, center-line

concentration from a point source at ground level.

MODIFICATIONS IN GAUSSIAN PLUME MODEL

Simplified Equations for Maximum Ground Level

Concentration

Condition

Where,

L = Mixing Height

Concentration Estimate for Various Sampling Times

C2 = C1 (t1/t2) q

where,

q lies between 0.17 and 0.5

3 hours 0.9 (±0.1)

8 hours 0.7 (±0.1)

24 hours 0.4 (±0.1)

PLUME DISPERSION PARAMETERS

Different Methods to Calculate Sigmas

Experimental data

Moment-Concentration Method

PLUME DISPERSION PARAMETERS

Factors Considered while Calculating Sigmas

Nature of Release

Sampling Time

Release Height

Terrain Features

Velocity Field

PASQUILL CURVES

Curves are based on smoke plume elevation Hsp (visible

portion) and angular spread q using the relations

z= Hsp/2.14

y= qx/4.28

of the normal error curve

TVA DISPERSION COEFFICIENTS

Sigma’s are calculated as:

= Area / [C *(2*p) 0.5]

p peak

Where,

Area = Base times the average height of Concentration Profile along the axis

Cpeak = Maximum concentrations in that profile

Cmax = Q / [2*U* y* z*p]

C = Cmax exp[-0.5*(xg/s)2]

PROBLEM-1

For the following data, find the maximum ground level

concentration at 4.2 km from the following stack:

Effective stack height = 75 m

Emission rate = 2520 g/sec

Wind speed at stack height = 6 m/sec

y = 560 m

z = 535 m

PROBLEM-2

For the following data, find the maximum ground level

concentration.

Effective stack height = 150 m

Emission rate = 1260 g/sec

Wind speed at stack height = 6 m/sec

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