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Typical Absorber

Effluent Air

Solvent (water) 70 ppm (molar) acetone

1943 kgmol / hr

Packed Tower

Water Out 703 kgmol / hr

1.4 mol % acetone

Mass Balance

Lo, Lm, xo, Xo

G1, Gm, y1, Y1

Tray 1

Tray N

LN, Lm, xN, XN

GN+1, Gm, yN+1, YN+1

The “Theoretical” Stage

LN-1, Lm, xN-1, XN-1 GN, Gm, yN, YN

in thermodynamic Stage N linked by material

equilibrium balance

GN+1, Gm, yN+1, YN+1

Absorber Operating Line

Solvent 200 80/4

4 CO2 Tray 1

200/4 80/8

4 CO2

200/8 80/12

4 CO2 Tray 3

200/12 80/16

4 CO2 Tray 4

Graphical Technique

operation in a counter-current

contactor with equilibrium stages (a-

absorber, b–stripper) .

Graphical Technique

absorber

Graphical Technique

Kremser Method for Theoretical Trays

(Absorber)

y N 1 m xo 1 1

log 1

y1 mxo A A L

N where : A

log A mG

Lo, xo G1,y1

Tray 1

Tray N

Kremser Method for Theoretical Trays

(Stripper)

y N 1

xo m 1 1

log 1

xN y N 1 S S

m mG

N where : S

log S L

Lo, xo G1,y1

Tray 1

Tray N

Kremser Chart

Example

Carbon Disulfide, CS2, used as a solvent in a chemical plant, is evaporated from the product in

a drier into an inert gas (essentially N2) in order to avoid an explosion hazard. The vapor-N2 mixture

is to be scrubbed with an absorbent oil, which will be subsequently steam stripped to recover the CS2.

The CS2-N2 mixture has a partial pressure of CS2 equal to 50 mm Hg at 24 C and is to be blown into

the absorber at essentially standard atmospheric pressure at the rate of 50,000 ft3 / hr. The vapor

content of the gas is to be reduced to 0.5 %. The absorption oil has a molecular weight of 180.

The oil enters the absorber free of CS2. The oil – CS2 solution follows Raoult’s Law. The vapor pressure

of CS2 at 24 C is 346 mm Hg.

the flow rate of oil in lb / hr

the Kremser method.

Packed Tower Design

Random Packing

Structured Packing

Fair, J.R., Seibert, A.F., Behrens, M., Saraber, P.P., and Olujic, Z. “Structured Packing

Performance-Experimental Evaluation of Two Predictive Models ”,Ind. Eng. Chem.

Res. 39 (6), 1788-1796 (2000).

Structured Packing

Area = S

Mass Balance

V dy K y a y y *

Change in gas

dZ = Flux out of gas

composition

Design Equations

L' L (1 x) and V ' V (1 y )

y dy dy

d (V y ) V ' d V ' V

1 y (1 y ) 2 (1 y )

y1 V dy Mass

Z '

y 2 K aS (1 y )( y y * )

y

(1 y ) (1 y * ) cDAB ( y A1 y A2 )

(1 y ) LM NA

z 2 z1 (1 y A ) LM

ln (1 y ) *

(1 y )

Eqn. 3-35

y1

V (1 y ) LM dy

Z

y2 K ' a(1 y ) S (1 y )( y y * )

y LM

HTUOG Calculation

1 1 m

K y k y kx

area from mass transfer model:

Onda, K., Takeuchi, H., Okumato, Y., “Mass Transfer Coefficients Between Gas

and Liquid Phases in Packed Columns,” Journal of Chemical Engineering of Japan,

1, 56 (1968).

Onda Equations

0.70

1 G

k y 5.23 ScG 1/ 3 aP d P 2

aP DAB aP G

1/ 3 2/3

L

k x L 0.0051 ScL 1/ 2 aP d P 0.40

g L aw L

0 .1

0.05 0.2

0.75

2 2

1.45 c L L a P L

aw aP 1 exp

a

aP L L g

2

L P

c= 75 dyne /cm for steel packing

c= 33 dyne /cm for plastic packing

Effective Area (aw)

Structured Packing Wetted Area

NTUOG Calculation

(Absorber Example)

Vout = 62 lbmol/hr

Lin = 488 lbmol/hr 3.2 mol % NH3

35

NTUOG

30

95 % NH3 removal

0.40(1 y ) LM dy

Area

25

3.44

0.032 (1 y )( y y * )

20

15

10

Vin = 100 lbmol/hr 5

40 mol % NH3

y

NTUOG Calculation

(log mean approximation)

NTU OG

yin yout

yin yin* yout yout

*

y y *

ln in in

*

yout yout

Packed Column HETP Behavior

Mass Transfer Results

24.0 psia - C6/C7

25

RSR-#0.5

1" SS Pall Rings

IMTP-40

20

IMTP-40

15

HETP ( in )

RSR-#0.5

10

0

0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1 1.2 1.4 1.6 1.8 2

f-Factor ( ft/s(lb/ft^3)^0.5 )

Packed Absorber Example

Solvent (water)

Effluent Air (y1 = 0.004)

2.2 kmol / sec

xo = 0

Data:

yi = 40 xi Packed Tower

kx = 0.0176 kmol /m2 sec CSA = 1.5 m2

ky = 0.0080 kmol / m2 sec

aw = 100 m2 / m3

Find: NOG, HOG, Z

Water + SO2 Out 0.062 kmol / sec

(yN+1 = 0.016)

10 Minute Problem

A packed absorption tower yields a concentration based. NTUOG of 10.

Determine the tower height given the following information (The concentrations

of the transferred component are dilute in both the liquid and gas).

Gas density = 0.20 lb/ ft3

Gas superficial velocity = 3 ft / sec

Kog = 0.01 m /sec

m = 2.0

P = 1 atm, T = 80 F

ae = 200 m2 /m3

Packed Tower Hydraulics

(random packing)

2) Stichlmair model

Pressure Drop Behavior

Pressure Drop Results

24.0 psia - C6/C7

10

RSR-#0.5

1" SS Pall Rings

IMTP-40

1" SS Pall Rings

1

DP/Z ( in H2O/ft )

RSR-#0.5

0.1 IMTP-40

0.01

0.1 1 10

f-Factor ( ft/s(lb/ft^3)^0.5 )

Pressure Drop (Leva) Plot

Figure 6.35 (a) Generalized pressure drop correlation for packed columns.

(b) Correction for liquid density. (c) Correction for liquid viscosity.

Packing Factors

Stichlmair Model

2C

h 3

1 1

DPIrr

2

DPirr

(1 )

h ho 1 20

L

Z g

DPDry

4.65

h

1

Prediction of Pressure Drop and Capacity of Countercurrent Gas/Liquid

Packed Columns,” Gas Separations and Purification, 3:19-28 (1989)

Stichlmair Model

C1 C2 1

2 Re g 2 Re g 2

V a

ho 0.555 Fr 1/ 3

FrL L

C

g

L 4.65

fo

C1 C d pVg g 61

fo 21 C3 Re g dp

Re g Re 2 g a

g

3 1 Z 2

DPDry f o 4.65 g Vg

4 dP

Stichlmair Model (flood point)

DPIrr

Infinite pressure drop at the flood point

DPDry

2c

2 40 ho

DPIrr 3 186 ho

0

Z L g flood

2 2

DPIrr DPIrr

1 ho 1 20 ho 1 20

Z

L flood

g

L flood

Z g

Stichlmair Constants

Example

A tower packed with 1 in. Ceramic Intalox saddles is to be built to

treat 25,000 ft3/ hr of entering gas. The ammonia content of the

entering gas is 2 percent by volume. Ammonia-free water is used as

the absorbent. The temperature is 68 F and the pressure is 1 atm.

The ratio of the gas flow to the liquid flow is 1 lb of gas per lb of liquid.

The tower diameter is 1.67 ft.

Using both the Leva plot and the Stichlmair correlation determine the

total tower pressure drop if the tower packed height is 20 feet.

10 Minute Problem

An air-water test is being run on a 10 foot bed of 1

inch (25 mm) metal Pall rings. The air rate is 350 ft3 /

min and the liquid rate is 15 GPM / ft2. The tower is

16.8 inches in diameter, the operating pressure is 1

atm and the temperature is 80 F. What is the total

column pressure drop?

Carbon Capture and Sequestration

Power N2 H2O

CO2 + N2 + H2O

Boiler / Generator CO2

CO2 Recovery

Trace

Components

Coal Air (O2 + N2)

Underground Formation

Absorption with Chemical Reaction

Flue Gas Out CO2

40–65 °C Heat X

Flue Gas In

5 % O2

Reboiler

12 % CO2

83 % N2

Rich Amine Lean Amine

Commercial Process Configuration

Mass Transfer with Fast Reaction

CO2 + 2MEA = MEACOO- + MEAH+

Mass Transfer with Fast Chemical Reaction

(CO2 + MEA)

NCO 2 ( PCO 2,interface PCO 2,bulk )

*

H CO 2

MEA (monoethanolamine)

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