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Describing Motion:

Angular Kinematics

INGRID I. EWICAN, LPT, MATPE

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Angular Kinematics

Angular motion occurs when all


points on an object move in
circular paths about the same
fixed axis.

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KINEMATICS

LINEAR ANGULAR

Scalars Vectors
Distance Displacement
Speed Velocity
Acceleration
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What is an angle?
• An angle is formed by the intersection
of two lines.

• The symbol for angle is  (Theta).

• Angles can be measured in degrees or


radians (rads). 1 rad = 180/Pi = 57.3

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Angular Displacement

Arc length

Angular displacement (rads)


radius ar c length L
   
radius r

Angular displacement is the change in angular


position experienced by a rotating line. A vector
quantity.
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Direction of an angular vector
• Not like linear vectors. Angular vectors
are perpendicular to the plane of motion.
• Must use right hand rule
– Curl fingers of rt. hand in the direction of
rotation.
– The direction of your extended thumb is the
direction of the angular displacement vector.

• A counterclockwise finger curl means


the thumb is pointing in the positive
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Link between Linear Distance
and Angular Displacement
• Radius is the link between linear and
angular kinematics
• If the angular displacement is
measured in radians, then the linear
distance (arc length) is equal to the
angular displacement times the
radius.
• L = *r

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Angular Velocity
• The rate of change of angular
displacement.
• Average angular velocity equals
angular displacement divided time.

 
t
• The symbol is  (omega).
• Angular velocity is a vector found
using the rt. hand rule.
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Angular Distance and Angular Speed

• Angular distance and angular speed


define a magnitude of rotation but no
direction as they are scalar quantities.

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Link between Linear and
Angular Velocity
• The link is radius.
• All points on a golf club undergo the
same angular displacement and
therefore the same angular velocity.
• But they trace out different arc
lengths based on their radius,
therefore their linear velocities must
be different.

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Points on Golf Club
axis of rotation

The clubhead moves a longer


distance (arc length) in the
same time. Therefore, it must
have a higher linear velocity.

The longer
VT VT   r
the club, the
The instantaneous linear velocity (VT) is
faster the
equal to the instantaneous angular velocity
linear
times the radius. VT , the instantaneous
velocity of
speed, is at a tangent to the clubhead path.
the head.
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New (and convenient) Reference Frame
Fixed Reference Frame
y

axis of rotation
x
R

T R

Moving Reference Frame T


R: radial
T: tangential
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Angular Acceleration
• The rate of change of angular velocity.
• Average angular acceleration equals the
change in angular velocity divided by time.

 
t
• The symbol is , (alpha)
• Angular acceleration is a vector found
using the rt. hand rule.

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Angular Acceleration

• Angular acceleration occurs when


something spins faster and faster or
slower and slower, or when the
object’s axis of spin changes
direction.

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Track Example
Usain Bolt runs the curve of this 200 m in 11 s. Assume he ran on
the inside line of lane 1, which makes a semicircle (r = 36.5 m) for
the first part of the race. His speed after the curve was 11.5 m/s.

Circle Circumference = 2r; Circle Diameter = 2r; r is radius

1. What distance was run on the curve?


2. What was his angular displacement ?
Start 3. What was his average angular velocity?
4. What was his average angular
acceleration?
N
36.5 m
W E
S

Finish
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Figure Skater Examples
1. While spinning in the air, a figure skater
completes 400 degrees of rotation. What was
the skater’s angular displacement covered in
radians? What was the skater’s angular
distance covered in radians?

2. If a figure skater has an initial angular velocity of


12 radians/second and undergoes an angular
acceleration of 10 radians/second/second for 0.5
seconds, what is the skater’s final angular
velocity?

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Linear Acceleration and Rotation
When an object has angular motion, it is
often easier to express linear acceleration
relative to a reference frame that moves with
the object.
So, instead of describing acceleration in the
fixed X and Y directions, we consider…
• Centripetal (radial) acceleration
– Calculated using angular velocity

• Tangential acceleration
– Calculated using angular acceleration
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Centripetal Acceleration
• The component of linear acceleration directed
towards the axis of rotation (center of the
circle).

• Associated with the change in direction of an


object moving in a circle. Changes the
direction of the velocity vector (arrow).

2
v
aR  T
aR   r 2

r
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Centripetal Acceleration and VT
Caused by radial
Vf (VT) acceleration

aR Vi (VT) V

Vi
r Vf

Resultant
Vector
Vf = Vi + V

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Tangential Acceleration
• The component of linear acceleration
tangent to the circular path (perpendicular
to the radius).
• Associated with the speeding up of an
object moving in a circle. Increases the
length of the tangential velocity arrow.
• Equal to the angular acceleration times
the radius.

aT   r

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Constant Angular Motion

 = 360 º (6.28 rad)


t = 3 s
r=2m

 = 0, therefore  is constant
at = 0, therefore Vt is constant

For this example, instantaneous values


are the same as average values!
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Accelerated Angular Motion
A

 = 360 º (6.28 rad)


t = 3 s
r=2m D
B

C
True or False
Instantaneous values are 1. Between A and B,  is > 0? T
different than average values! 2. Between D and A,  is > 0? F
3. Omega () is always  0? T

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Visual Comparison

Which has/have the…


1. greatest ? B A
2. greatest Vt? C
3. greatest aR? C
4. smallest magnitude of at? A and C

B C

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Angular Kinematics Summary
Angular

Angular Displacement
Linear
Angular Velocity Centripetal Acceleration

Angular Acceleration Tangential Acceleration

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Track Example #2
At 4 s into his 200 m race, Bolt is running with a speed of 7 m/s.
At 9 s, his speed is at 10 m/s. Assume he is running on the
inside line of lane 1, which makes a semicircle (r = 36.5 m).

1. What’s his radial acceleration at 4 s?


2. What’s his radial acceleration at 9 s?
3. What’s his angular velocity at 4 s?
t = 4s Start 4. What’s his angular velocity at 9 s?
5. What’s his average angular
N acceleration between 4 s and 9 s?
36.5 m 6. What’s his average tangential
W E acceleration between 4 s and 9 s?

S
t=9s

Finish
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Example Problem
• The cyclists shown on the next page are rounding
a turn at the bottom of a hill. The path they follow
in doing this is a gentle curve that becomes
progressively sharper as they near the corner. The
radius of the path followed by one of these riders
is 20 m at one point in the initial gentle part of
the turn, and then decreases to a minimum value
of 17 m, 1.5 s later. Her tangential velocity at
these two instants are 12 m/s and 11.5 m/s
respectively. What is her radial acceleration at the
two points? What is her average tangential
acceleration between the two points?

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Biking On a Curve

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The End….

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