angular kinematics with linear kinematics

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angular kinematics with linear kinematics

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Angular Kinematics

1

Angular Kinematics

points on an object move in

circular paths about the same

fixed axis.

2

KINEMATICS

LINEAR ANGULAR

Scalars Vectors

Distance Displacement

Speed Velocity

Acceleration

3

What is an angle?

• An angle is formed by the intersection

of two lines.

radians (rads). 1 rad = 180/Pi = 57.3

4

Angular Displacement

Arc length

radius ar c length L

radius r

position experienced by a rotating line. A vector

quantity.

5

Direction of an angular vector

• Not like linear vectors. Angular vectors

are perpendicular to the plane of motion.

• Must use right hand rule

– Curl fingers of rt. hand in the direction of

rotation.

– The direction of your extended thumb is the

direction of the angular displacement vector.

the thumb is pointing in the positive

direction 6

Link between Linear Distance

and Angular Displacement

• Radius is the link between linear and

angular kinematics

• If the angular displacement is

measured in radians, then the linear

distance (arc length) is equal to the

angular displacement times the

radius.

• L = *r

7

Angular Velocity

• The rate of change of angular

displacement.

• Average angular velocity equals

angular displacement divided time.

t

• The symbol is (omega).

• Angular velocity is a vector found

using the rt. hand rule.

8

Angular Distance and Angular Speed

define a magnitude of rotation but no

direction as they are scalar quantities.

9

Link between Linear and

Angular Velocity

• The link is radius.

• All points on a golf club undergo the

same angular displacement and

therefore the same angular velocity.

• But they trace out different arc

lengths based on their radius,

therefore their linear velocities must

be different.

10

Points on Golf Club

axis of rotation

distance (arc length) in the

same time. Therefore, it must

have a higher linear velocity.

The longer

VT VT r

the club, the

The instantaneous linear velocity (VT) is

faster the

equal to the instantaneous angular velocity

linear

times the radius. VT , the instantaneous

velocity of

speed, is at a tangent to the clubhead path.

the head.

11

New (and convenient) Reference Frame

Fixed Reference Frame

y

axis of rotation

x

R

T R

R: radial

T: tangential

12

Angular Acceleration

• The rate of change of angular velocity.

• Average angular acceleration equals the

change in angular velocity divided by time.

t

• The symbol is , (alpha)

• Angular acceleration is a vector found

using the rt. hand rule.

13

Angular Acceleration

something spins faster and faster or

slower and slower, or when the

object’s axis of spin changes

direction.

14

Track Example

Usain Bolt runs the curve of this 200 m in 11 s. Assume he ran on

the inside line of lane 1, which makes a semicircle (r = 36.5 m) for

the first part of the race. His speed after the curve was 11.5 m/s.

2. What was his angular displacement ?

Start 3. What was his average angular velocity?

4. What was his average angular

acceleration?

N

36.5 m

W E

S

Finish

15

Figure Skater Examples

1. While spinning in the air, a figure skater

completes 400 degrees of rotation. What was

the skater’s angular displacement covered in

radians? What was the skater’s angular

distance covered in radians?

12 radians/second and undergoes an angular

acceleration of 10 radians/second/second for 0.5

seconds, what is the skater’s final angular

velocity?

16

Linear Acceleration and Rotation

When an object has angular motion, it is

often easier to express linear acceleration

relative to a reference frame that moves with

the object.

So, instead of describing acceleration in the

fixed X and Y directions, we consider…

• Centripetal (radial) acceleration

– Calculated using angular velocity

• Tangential acceleration

– Calculated using angular acceleration

17

Centripetal Acceleration

• The component of linear acceleration directed

towards the axis of rotation (center of the

circle).

object moving in a circle. Changes the

direction of the velocity vector (arrow).

2

v

aR T

aR r 2

r

18

Centripetal Acceleration and VT

Caused by radial

Vf (VT) acceleration

aR Vi (VT) V

Vi

r Vf

Resultant

Vector

Vf = Vi + V

19

Tangential Acceleration

• The component of linear acceleration

tangent to the circular path (perpendicular

to the radius).

• Associated with the speeding up of an

object moving in a circle. Increases the

length of the tangential velocity arrow.

• Equal to the angular acceleration times

the radius.

aT r

20

Constant Angular Motion

t = 3 s

r=2m

= 0, therefore is constant

at = 0, therefore Vt is constant

are the same as average values!

21

Accelerated Angular Motion

A

t = 3 s

r=2m D

B

C

True or False

Instantaneous values are 1. Between A and B, is > 0? T

different than average values! 2. Between D and A, is > 0? F

3. Omega () is always 0? T

22

Visual Comparison

1. greatest ? B A

2. greatest Vt? C

3. greatest aR? C

4. smallest magnitude of at? A and C

B C

23

Angular Kinematics Summary

Angular

Angular Displacement

Linear

Angular Velocity Centripetal Acceleration

24

Track Example #2

At 4 s into his 200 m race, Bolt is running with a speed of 7 m/s.

At 9 s, his speed is at 10 m/s. Assume he is running on the

inside line of lane 1, which makes a semicircle (r = 36.5 m).

2. What’s his radial acceleration at 9 s?

3. What’s his angular velocity at 4 s?

t = 4s Start 4. What’s his angular velocity at 9 s?

5. What’s his average angular

N acceleration between 4 s and 9 s?

36.5 m 6. What’s his average tangential

W E acceleration between 4 s and 9 s?

S

t=9s

Finish

25

Example Problem

• The cyclists shown on the next page are rounding

a turn at the bottom of a hill. The path they follow

in doing this is a gentle curve that becomes

progressively sharper as they near the corner. The

radius of the path followed by one of these riders

is 20 m at one point in the initial gentle part of

the turn, and then decreases to a minimum value

of 17 m, 1.5 s later. Her tangential velocity at

these two instants are 12 m/s and 11.5 m/s

respectively. What is her radial acceleration at the

two points? What is her average tangential

acceleration between the two points?

26

Biking On a Curve

27

The End….

28

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