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CHAPTER 1: INTRODUCTION

Some famous news


headlines…
What is the real meaning of
Safety?
• The condition of being protected from or
unlikely to cause danger, risk, or injury.
• What is then Hazards? What is the
relationship between hazards and
safety?
• Look at your classroom now. Can you
spot any hazards in it?
What is the recipe towards
good SAFETY Agenda?
System.
• A set of things working together as parts
of a mechanism or an interconnecting
network; a complex whole. (Oxford)
• In a chemical process, what will best
describe about a certain system? Can
you think of any example?
• What makes a good system?
Attitude
• "It is our attitude at the beginning of a
difficult task which, more than anything
else, will affect it's successful outcome."
(William James)
• The most difficult ingredient of all…
• Eventually affects your behaviour, and
thus becomes a CULTURE…
Fundamentals.
• Imagine the construction of a house.

• What happened if the foundation is not


properly laid?

• Always have the right idea at the very


start. But why???
Experience
• What is experience?

• Just because you did it with a certain


way before, does it automatically
becomes the correct protocol?

• Whose experience counts the most?


Yours or theirs?
Time
• Time and tide wait for no men.

• Always a challenge to strike a balance


between time for safety and main
activities.

• The factor that you can’t purchase and


reverse.
You.
• What? Me? Why me?

• Can a safety program progress well


without participation?

• Charity begins at home. Safety starts


from you…
STATISTICS/PARAMETERS.
• OSHA Incidence Rate. (based on
injuries and illnesses)

• OSHA Incidence Rate.(based on lost


workdays)

• Fatality Accident Rate (FAR).

• Fatality Rate
OSHA Incidence Rate
• If based on injuries and illnesses:
OSHA Incidence Rate (cont’)
• If based on lost workdays:
Fatality Accident Rate.
Fatality Rate

𝑁𝑢𝑚𝑏𝑒𝑟 𝑜𝑓 𝑓𝑎𝑡𝑎𝑙𝑖𝑡𝑖𝑒𝑠 𝑝𝑒𝑟 𝑦𝑒𝑎𝑟


• 𝐹𝑎𝑡𝑎𝑙𝑖𝑡𝑦 𝑅𝑎𝑡𝑒 =
𝑇𝑜𝑡𝑎𝑙 𝑛𝑢𝑚𝑏𝑒𝑟 𝑜𝑓 𝑝𝑒𝑜𝑝𝑙𝑒 𝑖𝑛 𝑎𝑝𝑝𝑙𝑖𝑐𝑎𝑏𝑙𝑒 𝑝𝑜𝑝𝑢𝑙𝑎𝑡𝑖𝑜𝑛
The Pyramid of Accident
Back in Malaysia.
Still in Malaysia
Is Chemical Good or Bad?
In a Hydrocarbon Plant.
What are the causes of losses
in Hydrocarbon plant…
In terms of Unit Operations
Failure.
Classic Historical Cases.

• Flixborough, United Kingdom. (1974)

• Bhopal, India. (1984)

• Seveso, Italy (1976)

Related Interests