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• It is a plan of methods and procedures that is

used by the researcher to collect and analyses
the data needed.
• It provides the plan of how the researcher will
go about answering the research questions
defined by manager and the researcher.
Research design cont
• It contain the clear objectives of the research,
specify the source and the type of data to be
collected, the design techniques, the sampling
methodology, etc.
• It involves two types of data collection;
Primary and Secondary.
Exploratory research
• Mostly use qualitative data collection
techniques. Focuses on collecting either
primary or secondary data using unstructured
format or informal procedures to interpret the
• It incorporate the least amount of scientific
methods and vigour because of aims and
• Qualitative data collection technique provides
• A lot of rich information but at the same time
it is hard to interpret and involves limitations
with regards to generalization, variability and
• It includes; in- depth interviews, focus group
and projective techniques.
Exploratory Study When to use?
• Exploratory Study is undertaken when not
much is known about the situation at hand, or
no information is available on how similar
problems or research issues have been solved
in the past.


• The manager of a multinational corporation is

curious to know if the work ethic values of
employees working in Prince Hassan Industrial City
would be different from those of Americans.
That city is a small city, and no information about the
ethic values of its workers.
Also, the work ethic values mean be different to
people in different cultures.


• The best way to study the above situation is

by conducting an exploratory study, by
interviewing the employees in organizations in
that area.

Experimental /(Causal design
(Conclusive Design)
• It provides answers to such questions by
explaining which variables are the cause(
independent variables) and which variables
are the effect( dependent variables)
• It is most appropriate when the research
objective includes the need to understand the
reasons why certain markets phenomena
happen as they do
Experimental design
• It helps to understand which market variables
( eg,packaging change) causes what effect on
other market variables (supermarket sales).
• To measure this however, the data must be
gathered under controlled condition- that is
holding constant neutralizing the effect of all
variables other than the causational variable
(in the case above supermarket sales)
• There are two types;
• Laboratory experiment is conducted in a
contrived (not natural/unrealistic) situation.
• Here the researcher create a situation with
the desired condition and then manipulates
some while controlling other variables.
Experimental design.
• Field experiment is conducted in a real-life
natural situation.
• The main distinction is the environment.
Example Field Experiment

• The bank manager now wants to determine

the cause-and-effect relationship between
interest rate and the inducements it offers to
clients to save and deposit money in the bank.
The researcher selects four branches within
60/km radius for the experiment.

Example Field Experiment

• For 1 week only, he advertises the annual rate for

new certificates of deposit received during that
week. The interest rate would be 9% in one branch,
8% in another, and 10% in the third. In the fourth
branch, the interest rate remains unchanged at 5%.
Within the week, the researcher would be able to
determine the effects, if any, of interest rates on
deposit mobilization.

Example Field Experiment

• This example would be a field experiment since

nothing but the interest rate is manipulated, with all
activities occurring in the normal and natural work
• Hopefully, all four branches chosen would be
compatible in size, number of depositors, deposit
patterns, and the like, so that the interest-savings
relationships are influenced by some third factor.

Example Lab Experiment

• To be sure about the true relationship between the

interest rate and deposits, the researcher could
create an artificial environment by choosing, for
instance, 40 students who are all business majors in
their final year of study and in the same age. The
researcher splits the students into four groups and
give each one of them $1000, which they are told
they might buy their needs or save for the future, or

Example Lab Experiment
The researcher offers them interest on what they save
as followings:
• 6% on savings for group 1.
• 8% for group 2.
• 9% for group 3.
• 1% for group 4 ( the old rate of interest).
Here, the researcher has created an artificial
laboratory environment and has manipulated the
interest rates for savings. He also chosen subjects
with similar backgrounds.

Descriptive (Conclusive Design)

• Descriptive; It is typically concern with

determining the frequency with which an
event occurs or the relationship between two
Descriptive Cont.
• It is used to;
• Make prediction of market and consumer
• Describe a characteristics of certain groups.
• Two main types; Cross sectional design and
Longitudinal design.
• A bank manager wants to have a profile of the
individuals who have loan payments outstanding
for 6 months and more.
This profile would include details of their average age,
earnings, nature of occupation, full-time/ part-time
employment status, and the like.
The above information might help the manager to
decide right away on the types of individuals who
should be made ineligible for loans in the future.

Cross sectional.
• It involves collection of information from any
given sample population element only once.
Cross sectional studies are just conducted only research to know the preference of
teenagers regarding their cola brand.
Longitudinal design.

• The primary objective of longitudinal design is

to monitor changes over a period of time.
• It involves a fixed sample of population
element that is measured repeatedly.
• The sample remains the same over a period of
time , thus providing a series of pictures which
when viewed together portray a detailed
illustration of the situation and changes that
are taking place over a period of time.
Case Study Design
• Case studies that are qualitative in nature are,
however, useful in applying solutions to
current problems based on past problem-
solving experiences.
• Also, case studies are useful in understanding
certain phenomena, and generating further
theories for empirical testing.

Case study research
• Researchers focus on, and study in depth, a single
• case
• A political theorist, a single individual, group,
community, event, policy area, institution, etc.
• Why choose case studies?
• Can generate a wealth of data on the case
• Invites inter-disciplinary approaches
• Allows for methodological promiscuity
• Weakness: generalizability
Causal Design/ Correlational
• A causal study: Is an inquiry to know the
cause of one or more problems.
• A correlational study: Is an inquiry to know
the important variables associated with the


• A causal study question:

Does smoking cause cancer?
• A correlational study question:
Are smoking and cancer related?
Are smoking, drinking, and chewing tobacco
associated with cancer?
If so, which of these contributes most to the variance
in the dependent variable?

Survey research
• A survey is a method which investigates the
opinions and feelings of people. It involves
interactions between the researcher and the
• environment. Information is collected through
questionnaire or interview in many cases.
Information collected in this way may not be
available under any other circumstances
• the outcome of which has immediate application
Types of Survey
• two broad categories:
• Self-completion methods include mail and
electronic surveys.
• Interviewer-administered methods involve
direct contact with the respondents through
personal interviews, including face-to-face,
• telephone and computer dialogue.
Comparative design
• Method requires observing and comparing carefully
• selected cases on the basis of a stimulus being absent
• or present. Same logic as experimental design but
without similar control of extraneous variables
• Most similar case design; most different case design
• Comparative analysis facilitates generalizations
• beyond single cases (nations, cultures)
• Weaknesses:
• Too many variables, not enough cases
Comparison of research design
Exploratory Descriptive Causal
Emphasis Discovering of ideas Frequency of Determined cause
and insight occurance and effect
Features Flexible, Hypothesis based, Variable control
Unstructured Structured
Techniques used Focus groups, Survey, Experimentation.
In-depth interview, Observation, Panel
Mostly qualitative data, Mostly
research. quantitative
Figure 3.8. Tasks Involved In a Research Design

Define the Information Needed

Design the Exploratory, Descriptive,

and/or Causal Phases of the Research

Specify the Measurement and Scaling


Construct a Questionnaire

Specify the Sampling Process and the

Sample Size

Develop a Plan of Data Analysis

Example 6.27

• A marketing manager is interested in tracing the

pattern of sales of a particular product in four
different regions of the country on a quarterly basis
for the next 2 years.