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1

Once the exergy is wasted, it can never

be recovered. when we use energy (to

heat our homes, for example), we are not

destroying any energy; we are merely

converting it to a less useful form, a form

of less exergy.

2

Dead State

When system is in thermodynamic equilibrium with the

environment

Same temperature and pressure as surroundings, no kinetic or

potential energy, chemically inert, no unbalanced electrical,

magnetic, etc effects…

we extract as useful work. The useful work potential of a

system at the specified state is called exergy. Exergy is a

property and is associated with the state of the system and

the environment. A system that is in equilibrium with its

surroundings has zero exergy and is said to be at the dead

state. The exergy of the thermal energy of thermal reservoirs

is equivalent to the work output of a Carnot heat engine

operating between the reservoir and the environment.

Exergy Forms

3

Now let’s determine the exergy of various forms of energy.

Exergy

Property

Availability or available work

Work = f(initial state, process path, final state)

Useful work

Upper limit on the amount of work a device can deliver

without violating any thermodynamic law.

(always a difference between exergy and actual work

delivered by a device)

System operating between high temp and dead state

4

Exergy of kinetic energy

Kinetic energy is a form of mechanical energy and can be

converted directly into work. Kinetic energy itself is the

work potential or exergy of kinetic energy independent of

the temperature and pressure of the environment.

Exergy of kinetic

energy:

r2

V

xke ke (kJ/kg)

2

5

Exergy of potential

energy

Potential energy is a form of mechanical energy and can be

converted directly into work. Potential energy itself is the

work potential or exergy of potential energy independent of

the temperature and pressure of the environment.

xpe pe gz (kJ/kg)

6

Useful Work

The work done by work producing devices is not always entirely in

a useable form. Consider the piston-cylinder device shown in the

following figure.

the piston-cylinder device is the

boundary work and can be written as

W P dV ( P P0 ) dV P0 dV

Wb, useful P0 dV 7

The actual work done by the gas is

W Wb, useful P0 dV

Wb, useful P0 (V2 V1 )

Wsurr P0 dV P0 (V2 V1 )

the pressure above the atmospheric level.

Wu W Wsurr

8

Reversible Work

Reversible work Wrev is defined as the maximum amount

of useful work that can be produced (or the minimum

work that needs to be supplied) as a system undergoes a

process between the specified initial and final states. This

is the useful work output (or input) obtained when the

process between the initial and final states is executed in

a totally reversible manner.

9

Irreversibility

The difference between the reversible work Wrev and the

useful work Wu is due to the irreversibilities present during

the process and is called the irreversibility I. It is equivalent

to the exergy destroyed and is expressed as

totally reversible process, the useful and reversible work

terms are identical and thus irreversibility is zero.

the lost opportunity to do work. It represents the energy that

could have been converted to work but was not.

also called the wasted work or lost work. 10

Second-Law Efficiency

The second-law efficiency is a measure of the performance of a device relative to

the performance under reversible conditions for the same end states and is given

by

th Wu

For heat engines and other II

work-producing devices and th , rev Wrev

and other work-consuming II

devices. COPrev Wu

II 1

Exergy supplied Exergy supplied 11

Exergy of change of a

system

Consider heat transferred to or from a closed system

whenever there is a temperature difference across the

system boundary. The exergy for a system may be

determined by considering how much of this heat transfer is

converted to work entirely. Let’s take a second look at the

following figure.

12

Taking the heat transfer to be from the system to its

surroundings, the conservation of energy is

Ein Eout dEsystem

0 Q W dU

The work is the boundary work and can be written as

W P dV ( P P0 ) dV P0 dV

Wb, useful P0 dV

the pressure above the atmospheric level.

occurs through a reversible heat engine.

T0 Q

WHE th Q (1 ) Q Q T0

T T

Qnet Q

dS

T T

WHE Q T0 dS 13

Q WHE T0 dS

WHE T0 dS Wb, useful P0 dV dU

dU P0 dV T0 dS

Integrating from the given state (no subscript) to the dead state

(0 subscript), we have

Wtotal useful (U 0 U ) P0 (V0 V ) T0 ( S0 S )

(U U 0 ) P0 (V V0 ) T0 ( S S0 )

reversible process from a given state to the dead state, which is

the definition of exergy.

a closed system is r2

V

X (U U 0 ) P0 (V V0 ) T0 ( S S0 ) m mgz

2

on a unit mass basis, the closed system (or nonflow) exergy is

r

V2

(u u0 ) P0 (v v0 ) T0 ( s s0 ) gz

2 14

(e e0 ) P0 (v v0 ) T0 ( s s0 )

Here, u0, v0, and s0 are the properties of the system evaluated

at the dead state. Note that the exergy of the internal energy

of a system is zero at the dead state is zero since u = u0, v =

v0, and s = s0 at that state.

simply the difference between the final and initial exergies of

the system,

X X 2 X 1 m(2 1 )

( E E0 ) P0 (V V0 ) T0 ( S S0 )

r2 r2

V V1

(U U 0 ) P0 (V V0 ) T0 ( S S0 ) m 2 mg ( z2 z1 )

2

(2 1 )

(e e0 ) P0 (v v0 ) T0 ( s s0 )

r r

V22 V12 15

(u u0 ) P0 (v v0 ) T0 ( s s0 ) g ( z2 z1 )

2

Exergy of flow

The energy needed to force mass to flow into or out of a

control volume is the flow work per unit mass given by.

wflow Pv

The exergy of flow work is the excess of flow work done against

atmospheric air at P0 to displace it by volume v. According to

the above figure, the useful work potential due to flow work is

wflow, energy Pv P0 v 16

Thus, the exergy of flow energy is

xflow energy Pv P0 v ( P P0 )v

Flow Exergy

Since flow energy is the sum of nonflow energy and the flow

energy, the exergy of flow is the sum of the exergies of

nonflow exergy and flow exergy.

x flowing fluid xnonflowing fluid xflow exergy

r2

V

(u u0 ) P0 (v v0 ) T0 ( s s0 ) gz ( P P0 )v

2

r2

V

(u Pv) (u0 P0 v0 ) T0 ( s s0 ) gz

2

r2

V

(h h0 ) T0 ( s s0 ) gz

2

The flow (or stream) exergy is given by

r2

V

(h h0 ) T0 ( s s0 ) gz 17

2

The exergy of flow can be negative if the pressure is lower than

atmospheric pressure.

from state 1 to state 2 is r2 r2

V V1

2 1 (h2 h1 ) T0 ( s2 s1 ) 2 g ( z2 z1 )

2

Exergy Transfer by Heat, Work, and Mass

Exergy can be transferred by heat, work, and mass flow, and

exergy transfer accompanied by heat, work, and mass transfer are

given by the following.

By the second law we know that only a portion of heat transfer at

a temperature above the environment temperature can be

converted into work. The maximum useful work is produced from

it by passing this heat transfer through a reversible heat engine.

The exergy transfer by heat is

Exergy transfer by heat: T

X heat 1 0

18

Q

T

Note in the above figure that entropy generation is always

by exergy destruction and that heat transfer Q at a location

at temperature T is always accompanied by entropy transfer

in the amount of Q/T and exergy transfer in the amount of

(1-T0/T)Q.

systems.

Exergy transfer by work

Exergy is the useful work potential, and the exergy transfer by

work can simply be expressed as

Exergy transfer by work: W Wsurr (for boundary work)

X work

W (for other forms of work)

Wsurr P0 (V2 V1 )

where , P0 is atmospheric pressure, and V1 and V2

are the initial and final volumes of the system. The exergy

transfer for shaft work and electrical work is equal to the work W

itself.

Note that exergy transfer by work is zero for systems that have

no work.

Exergy transfer by mass

Mass flow is a mechanism to transport exergy, entropy, and

energy into or out of a system. As mass in the amount m enters

or leaves a system the exergy transfer is given by

Exergy transfer by mass:

X mass m 20

Note that exergy transfer by mass is zero for systems that

involve no flow.

The Decrease of Exergy Principle and Exergy

Destruction

The exergy of an isolated system during a process always

decreases or, in the limiting case of a reversible process, remains

constant. This is known as the decrease of exergy principle and

is expressed as

X isolated ( X 2 X 1 )isolated 0

Exergy Destruction

Irreversibilities such as friction, mixing, chemical reactions, heat

transfer through finite temperature difference, unrestrained

expansion, non-quasi-equilibrium compression, or expansion

always generate entropy, and anything that generates entropy

always destroys exergy. The exergy destroyed is proportional to

the entropy generated as expressed as

X destroyed T0 Sgen 21

The decrease of exergy principle does not imply that the

exergy of a system cannot increase. The exergy change of a

system can be positive or negative during a process, but

exergy destroyed cannot be negative. The decrease of

exergy principle can be summarized as follows:

0 Irreversible proces

X destroyed 0 Reversible process

0 Impossible process

Exergy Balances

Exergy balance for any system undergoing any process can be

expressed as

Total Total Total Change in the

exergy

exergy

exergy

total exergy

entering leaving destroyed of the system

General:

X in X out X X

14 2 43 14destroyed

2 43 14 2system

43

Net exergy transfer Exergy Change 22

by heat, work, and mass destruction in exergy

General, rate

form:

14 2 43 14 2 43 14 2 43

Rate of net exergy transfer Rate of exergy Rate of change

by heat, work, and mass destruction of exergy

General, unit-mass

basis:

( xin xout ) xdestroyed xsystem

whe T

re X&heat 1 0 Q&

T

X&work W&useful

X& m&

mass

X&system dX system / dt

For a reversible process, the exergy destruction term,

Xdestroyed, is zero. 23

Considering the system to be a general control volume and

taking the positive direction of heat transfer to be to the

system and the positive direction of work transfer to be

from the system, the general exergy balance relations can

be expressed more explicitly as

T0

1 T Qk W P0 (V2 V1 ) mi i me e X destroyed X 2 X 1

k

1 T Q

k

W P0

dt i i e e

&

m &

m &

X destroyed

dt

k

and 2 = final state of the system. For closed systems, no

mass crosses the boundaries and we omit the terms

containing the sum over the inlets and exits.

24

Example 8-1

Oxygen gas is compressed in a piston-cylinder device from

an initial state of 0.8 m3/kg and 25oC to a final state of 0.1

m3/kg and 287oC. Determine the reversible work input and

the increase in the exergy of the oxygen during this process.

Assume the surroundings to be at 25oC and 100 kPa.

heats. From Table A-2, R = 0.2598 kJ/kgK. The specific heat

is determined at the average temperature

T1 T2 (25 287)oC

Tav 156oC

2 2

(156 273)K 429K

25

The entropy change of oxygen is

T v

s2 s1 Cv, ave ln 2 R ln 2

T1 v1

m3

kJ (287 273) K kJ 0.1

kg

0.690 ln 0.2598 ln

kg K (25 273) K kg K m3

0.8 kg

kJ

0.105

kg K

minimum work input Wrev,in in this case, from the exergy balance

by setting the exergy destruction equal to zero.

14 2 43 14 2 43 14 2 43

Net exergy transfer Exergy Change

by heat, work, and mass destruction in exergy

26

Wrev,in X 2 X 1

Therefore, the change in exergy and the reversible work are

identical in this case. Substituting the closed system exergy

relation, the reversible work input during this process is

determined to be

wrev,in 2 1

(u2 u1 ) P0 (v2 v1 ) T0 ( s2 s1 )

Cv,ave (T2 T1 ) P0 (v2 v1 ) T0 ( s2 s1 )

kJ m 3 kJ

0.690 (287 25)K 100 kPa(0.1 0.8)

kg K kg m3kPa

kJ

(25 273)K(0.105 )

kg K

kJ

142.1

kg

kJ

x2 x1 2 1 wrev, in 142.1 27

kg

Example 8-2

Steam enters an adiabatic turbine at 6 MPa, 600C, and 80

m/s and leaves at 50 kPa, 100C, and 140 m/s. The

surroundings to the turbine are at 25C. If the power output

of the turbine is 5MW, determine

(a)the power potential of the steam at its inlet conditions, in

MW.

(b) the reversible power, in MW.

(c)the second law efficiency.

energy.

28

The mass flow rate of the steam is determined from the

steady-flow energy equation applied to the actual process,

0 (steady)

E&in E&out E&systems

14 2 43 14 2 43

Rate of net energy transfer Rate of change

by heat, work, and mass of energy

r2 r2

V V

m&1 (h1 1 ) m&2 ( h2 2 ) W&out 0

2 2

14 2 43 14 2 43

Conservation of mass for the Rate of net mass transfer Rate of change

steady flow gives of mass

m&1 m&2 0

m&1 m&2 m&

r2 r2

The work done by the turbine V V2

&

Wout m&(h1 h2 ) 1

and the mass flow rate are 2 2

W&out

m& 29

(h1 h2 ) ke

r r

Where: V22 V12

ke

2 2

(140 m/s) 2 (80 m/s) 2 1kJ/kg

2 2

2 1000 m /s

kJ

6.6

kg

From the steam tables:

� kJ

h 3658.8

P1 6 MPa ���

1

kg

��

T1 600o C �� kJ � kJ

s1 7.1693 h @ h 104.83

P0 100 kPa �� 0 o

�

� kg �

K �

f@25 C

kg

��

� kJ T0 25o C �� kJ

h 2682.4 s0 @ sf@25o C 0.3672

P2 50 kPa ��

�

2

kg �

� kg �

K

��

T2 100o C �� kJ

s2 7.6953

�

� kg �

K

30

W&out

m&

(h1 h2 ) ke

5 MW 1000 kJ/s �

� kg

� � 5.16

kJ � MW � s

(3658.8 2682.4 6.6)

kg

equivalent to its exergy at the inlet state. Recall that we neglect

the potential energy of the flow.

r2

& m& m& (h h ) T ( s s ) V1 0 gz

1 1 1 0 0 1 0 1

2

� kJ kJ �

(3658.8

� 104.83) (298 K )(7.1693 0.3672)

kg kg K�

kg �

& 5.16 �

�

s � (80m/s) � kJ/kg � �

1 2

�

� � 2 2 � �

�

� 2 1000

� m /s � �

kg � � MW �

kJ �

5.16 1533.3

� �

� � 7.91MW 31

s � kg �

�1000 kJ/s �

The power output of the turbine if there are no irreversibilities

is the reversible power and is determined from the rate form

of the exergy balance applied on the turbine and setting the

exergy destruction term equal to zero. 0 (steady)

X&in X&out X&destroyed X&system

0

14 2 43 14 2 43 14 2 43

Rate of net exergy transfer Rate of exergy Rate of change

by heat, work, and mass destruction of exergy

X&in X&out

m& W&

1 rev, out m& 2

W&rev, out m&( 2 1 )

m& (h1 h2 ) T0 ( s1 s2 ) ke pe

0

� kJ kJ �

(3658.8

� 2682.4) (298 K )(7.1693 7.6953)

kg � kg K�

kg �

W&rev, out 5.16 �

s � kJ �

�6.6 �

� kg �

kg � � MW �

kJ � ©

5.16 1126.5

� �

� � 5.81MW M A Boles, 2010

32

s � kg �

�1000 kJ/s �

The second-law efficiency is determined from

W& 5 MW

II 86.1%

&

Wrev 5.81MW

33

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