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THEORY OF ARCHITECTURAL DESIGN

Theory
- a proposed explanation whose status is still
conjectural and subject to experimentation, in contrast
to well-established propositions that are regarded as
reporting matters of actual fact.
THEORY OF DESIGN
• RESEARCH OF ARCHITECTURE
- Research contributes to Design Theory
• NATURE OF DESIGN THEORY
- Design Theory states facts
- Design Theory aids design
• SCOPE OF ARCHITECTURE THEORY
-- Includes all that is presented in the handbooks of architects
-- Includes legislation(laws), norms and standards, rules and methods
-- Includes miscellaneous and “unscientific” elements
• WHY DESIGN THEORY?
– To aid the work of the architect and improve its product
-- Proven theory helps designers do work better and more efficiently
-- “Skill without knowledge is nothing”
• UNDERSTANDING DESIGN THEORY
-- Theory does NOT necessarily PRECEDE design
-- STYLE
THEORY OF DESIGN

Architectural theory began with Marcus Vitruvius’ Ten Books on Architecture, written in the
first century B.C. The book was a practical guide to the design and construction of towns,
infrastructure, and public buildings, and private residences. The book also included
discussions of material properties and usage, proportion and geometry, and site
orientation, all of which are issues still relevant to architecture today.

Architectural theory is vast and diverse, and encompasses at least three main areas:

1. theories of architectural technology: principles of structure, ventilation, drainage,


lighting, etc.

2. theories of architectural history: social phenomena and patterns, linguistic analyses,


analyses of physical artifacts, etc.

3. theories of architectural design: organizational strategies, design methods, spatial


concepts, aesthetic judgments, etc.
INFLUENCES IN ARCHITECTURAL DESIGN:
I. GENERAL INFLUENCES:

NEEDS OF MAN
1. PHYSICAL NEEDS
A. SELF-PRESERVATION (BASIC NEEDS)
- FOOD
- SHELTER (architecture)
- CLOTHING
addition to basic needs:
POWER
WATER
TRANSPORTATION
EDUCATION
SPORTS
MEDICAL
LIVELIHOOD
B. REPRODUCTION
FOR THE POPULATION TO INCREASE AND CONTINUE
ITS EXISTENCE.

MODERN MAN’S SHELTER


-NECESSITIES
-CONVENIENCES
-COMFORTS
INFLUENCES IN ARCHITECTURAL DESIGN:
2. EMOTIONAL NEEDS
-RELIGION
-ART
-RECREATION

3. INTELLECTUAL NEEDS – (DEMAND A PROPER ARCHITECTURAL SETTING)


-EDUCATION
-SCIENCE
-GOVERNMENT
ACTIVITIES OF MAN
DESIRE FOR PRESERVATION
-food, shelter, clothing, security
DESIRE FOR RECOGNITION
-prestige, pride, ambition, social status, physical
supremacy, intellectual attainment, result in the
struggle for position.
DESIRE FOR RESPONSE
- love, friendship, sociability
DESIRE FOR SELF-EXPRESSION
- aesthetic expression
INFLUENCES IN ARCHITECTURAL DESIGN:
II. INFLUENCES OF NATURE

1. CLIMATE
EFFECTS OF CLIMATE ON ARCHITECTURE
WARMER CLIMATES
OPEN PLANNING, OFTEN INCLUDE COURTS OR PATIOS
COLDER CLIMATE
MORE COMPACT
COVER FROM DIRECTION OF WIND
STRUCTURAL ELEMENTS
PROTECTIVE ELEMENTS
CIRCULATORY ELEMENTS
DECORATIVE ELEMENTS

2. TOPOGRAPHY
-structures on higher ground - on stilt, split levels, informal
-structures on leveled ground - same base height, regular height floors,
formal, balanced.
3. MATERIALS - depends on availability of resources within the
vicinity (limestone, marble, pine, brick, etc.)
INFLUENCES IN ARCHITECTURAL DESIGN:
III. INFLUENCE OF MAN
1. PERIODS
2. MAN’S PERSONALITY
3. MAN’S INTEREST
HOUSE
FACTORY
CHURCH

20TH CENTURY
TRANSPORTATION
COMMERCE
EDUCATION
REHABILITATION – to restore to good health or useful life, as
through therapy of education.

21ST CENTURY
FUTURE HOMES
SMART HOUSES
PROXEMICS
-can be defined as "the
interrelated observations and
theories of man's use of
space as a specialized
elaboration of culture"

EDWARD T HALL “PERSONAL REACTION


BUBBLE”
PROXEMICS

Hall believed that the value in studying proxemics comes from its applicability in
evaluating not only the way people interact with others in daily life, but also "the
organization of space in [their] houses and buildings, and ultimately the layout of [their]
towns.

THE PERSONAL SPACE


The most portable types of space. A person's personal space is carried with them
everywhere they go. It is the most inviolate form of territory. [4] Body spacing and
posture, according to Hall, are unintentional reactions to sensory fluctuations or shifts,
such as subtle changes in the sound and pitch of a person's voice. Social distance
between people is reliably correlated with physical distance, as are intimate and
personal distance, according to the delineations below. Hall did not mean for these
measurements to be strict guidelines that translate precisely to human behavior, but
rather a system for gauging the effect of distance on communication and how the effect
varies between cultures and other environmental factors.
PROXEMICS

Intimate distance for embracing, touching or whispering


Close phase – less than 6 inches (15 cm)
Far phase – 6 to 18 inches (15 to 46 cm)

Personal distance for interactions among good friends or family members


Close phase – 1.5 to 2.5 feet (46 to 76 cm)
Far phase – 2.5 to 4 feet (76 to 122 cm)

Social distance for interactions among acquaintances


Close phase – 4 to 7 feet (1.2 to 2.1 m)
Far phase – 7 to 12 feet (2.1 to 3.7 m)

Public distance used for public speaking


Close phase – 12 to 25 feet (3.7 to 7.6 m)
Far phase – 25 feet (7.6 m) or more.
PROXEMICS

In addition to physical distance, the level of intimacy between conversants can be


determined by "socio-petal socio-fugal axis", or the "angle formed by the axis of the
conversants' shoulders".[1] Hall has also studied combinations of postures between dyads
(two people) including lying prone, sitting, or standing. These variations in positioning are
impacted by a variety of nonverbal communicative factors, listed below.
KINESTHETIC

This category deals with how closely the participants are to touching, from being
completely outside of body-contact distance to being in physical contact, which parts of
the body are in contact, and body part positioning.

touching code
This behavioural category concerns how participants are touching one another, such as
caressing, holding, feeling, prolonged holding, spot touching, pressing against, accidental
brushing, or not touching at all.
visual code
This category denotes the amount of eye contact between participants. Four sub-
categories are defined, ranging from eye-to-eye contact to no eye contact at all.
KINESTHETIC

thermal code
This category denotes the amount of body heat that each participant perceives from
another. Four sub-categories are defined: conducted heat detected, radiant heat detected,
heat probably detected, and no detection of heat.

olfactory code
This category deals in the kind and degree of odour detected by each participant from the
other.

voice loudness
This category deals in the vocal effort used in speech. Seven sub-categories are defined:
silent, very soft, soft, normal, normal+, loud, and very loud.
KINESTHETIC

Cultural factors

Hall notes that different cultures maintain different standards of personal space. The Lewis
Model of Cultural Types indicates the variations in personal interactive qualities, indicating
three poles: "linear-active" cultures, which are characterized as cool and decisive (Germany,
Norway, USA), "reactive" cultures, characterized as accommodating and non-confrontational
(Vietnam, China, Japan), and "multi-active" cultures, characterized as warm and impulsive
(Brazil, Mexico, Italy).[5] Realizing and recognizing these cultural differences improves cross-
cultural understanding, and helps eliminate discomfort people may feel if the interpersonal
distance is too large ("stand-offish") or too small (intrusive).
Territory
There are four forms of human territory in proxemic theory. They are:

public territory
a place where one may freely enter. This type of territory is rarely in the constant control
of just one person. However, people might come to temporarily own areas of public
territory.

interactional territory
a place where people congregate informally

home territory
a place where people continuously have control over their individual territory

body territory
the space immediately surrounding us
These different levels of territory, in addition to factors involving personal space, suggest
ways for us to communicate and produce expectations of appropriate behavior.
THEMATIC THEORIES
• CLASSICAL
– Marcus Vitruvius Pollio
• MIDDLE AGES
– Medieval (read: Dark Age) anonymous tradition of trade guilds
• RENAISSANCE
-- Alberti, Vignola, Palladio, etc.
• STRUCTURALIST (Construction Theory)
– Galileo Galilei, Robert Hooke, etc.
• ART NOUVEAU (Personal Styles)
– Eugene Emmanuel Violett-le-Duc, Le Corbusier, etc.
• FUNCTIONALISM
– Walter Gropius, Louis Sullivan, etc.
• POSTMODERNISM
– Robert Venturi
• SYMBOLIC ARCHITECTURE
• ECOLOGICAL ARCHITECTURE
CLASSICAL THEORIES
• MARCUS VITRUVIUS POLLIO
– author of the oldest research on architecture
-- wrote an extensive summary of all the theory on construction
-- had a thorough knowledge of earlier Greek and Roman writings
• “TEN BOOKS ON ARCHITECTURE”
-- consists mostly of normative theory of design (based on practice)
-- a collection of thematic theories of design with no method of combining
them into a synthesis
-- presents a classification of requirements set for buildings:
-- DURABILITY (firmitas)
-- PRACTICALITY or “Convenience” (utilitas)
-- PLEASANTNESS (venustas)
• VITRUVIAN RULES OF AESTHETIC FORM
-- based on Greek traditions of architecture
-- teachings of Pythagoras = applying proportions of numbers
-- proportions of human body
-- PLEASANTNESS = in accordance of good taste
= parts follow proportions
= symmetry of measures
THEORIES in the MIDDLE AGES

• MONASTERY INSTITUTION
– most documents retrieved from the Middle Ages
-- however, archives contain only few descriptions of buildings
-- described only as “according to the traditional model”
-- “There’s no accounting for tastes” was the rule of thumb

• DEVELOPMENT OF BUILDING STYLE


– with hardly or no literary research present
-- Villard de Honnecourt’s “sketchbook” in 1235
-- Roritzer’s “Booklet on the right way of making pinnacles”
-- only through guidance of old masters
-- tradition binding and precise in closed guilds of builders
RENAISSANCE THEORIES
• 1418 – a copy of Vitruve manuscripts found at St. Gallen monastery
• LEON BATTISTA ALBERTI (1404-72)
– person in charge of constructions commanded by Pope
-- “On Building” = De re aedificatoria
-- one of the greatest works of the theory of architecture
-- completed in 1452, published in 1485
-- more emphasis on decoration of building exteriors

• GIACOMO BAROZZI DA VIGNOLA


-- concise, fast and easily applicable rules of the five column systems
-- idea of Pythagoras (proportions of small numbers meant harmony)
-- proportions and other instructions provided by Vitruvius
-- example set by earlier buildings
-- “general good taste”
FLORENCE CATHEDRAL
CONSTRUCTION THEORY
Building Material Architectural Form
Amorphic material:
Spherical vaulted construction
soft stone; snow

Sheets of skin or textile Cone-shaped tent construction

Logs of wood Box-shaped construction

• BEFORE WRITTEN CONSTRUCTION THEORY


- Architecture created without the help of architects or theory
- Builders used a model instead of mathematical algorithms
now used in modern construction.

• SEMI-CIRCULAR VAULT: THEORY BY VITRUVE


“When there are arches… the outermost piers must be made
broader than the others, so that they may have the strength to resist
when the wedges, under the pressure of the load of the walls, begin to
thrust out the abutments.”
CONSTRUCTION THEORY
• DURING MIDDLE AGES
- No written document survived about theories or models to describe
the magnificent vaults of medieval cathedrals
- Shapes of gothic vaults resemble inverted catenaries
- Architects design not only the layout and decoration but also the
construction and stability of buildings

• DURING RENAISSANCE
- From Alberti onwards, architects began specializing. Thus, the mechanics of materials
& construction started to become a field of study of its own.
- Mathematical models by Francis Bacon and Galileo Galilei.
- 1675: Marquis de Vauban founded a building department in the French army
called “Corps des ingenieurs”
- 1747: Ecole des Ponts et Chaussees, special school founded in Paris where
new profession specializing in construction was organized
- Other figures who developed mathematical construction theory
Robert Hooke; Jakob Bernoulli; Leonard Euler
- From Euler onwards, theory of elasticity of structures developed
PERSONAL STYLES
• COPYING FROM ANTIQUITY
- Architecture from antiquity came to a point of perfection
- The foundation of modern architecture.
- Although Viollet-le-Duc did not create a timeless architectural style himself, he showed
others the philosophical foundation and method that they could use to develop even
radically new form languages.
- Owen Jones: used forms inspired from nature, especially plants.

• ART NOUVEAU
- The 1st architectural style independent of the tradition of antiquity after the
Gothic style
- The example set by Art Nouveau encouraged some of the most skillful
architects of the 20th century to create their private form languages.
CASSA BATLLO
PERSONAL STYLES
• THEORETICAL TREATISES

- Five Points of Architecture (1926, Le Corbusier)


1. pilotis
2. free plan
3. free façade
4. the long horizontal sliding window
5. the roof garden

- The “personal styles” of architects are not necessarily based on laws of nature
or on logical reasoning. More important is that they exhibit a
coherent application of an idea which also must be clear that the
public can find it out. An advantage is also if the style includes
symbolical undertones.
VILLA SAVOY
FUNCTIONALISM

• PRECONDITIONS IN FUNCTIONAL ARCHITECTURE


- Function is one of the cornerstones of Vitruvian theory
- Did not receive as much attention in Renaissance era

• 20th CENTURY ARCHITECTURE

- Louis Sullivan: Ornament in Architecture (1892)


- “Form follows function”
- Frank Lloyd Wright “Form and function as one”
- Construction Economy “matchbox architecture”
- Ludwig Mies van der Rohe “Less is more”
GUGGENHEIM MUSEUM (Frank Lloyd Wright)
FARNSWORTH HOUSE (Ludwig Meis Van Der Rohe)
POSTMODERNISM

• PRECONDITIONS IN FUNCTIONAL ARCHITECTURE


- Function is one of the cornerstones of Vitruvian theory
- Did not receive as much attention in Renaissance era
- Industrial Revolution
- Eugene Viollet-le-Duc

• 20th CENTURY ARCHITECTURE


- Louis Sullivan: Ornament in Architecture (1892)
- “Form follows function”
- Frank Lloyd Wright “Form and function as one”
- Otto Wagner: Moderne Arckitektur (1895)
- Bauhaus and Walther Gropius
- Architecture supported by “mother sciences”
- Construction Economy “matchbox architecture”
- Ludwig Mies van der Rohe “Less is more”
FLATIRON (Fuller Building)
SYMBOLIC ARCHITECTURE
• MATHEMATICAL ANALOGY
-- Golden Section
• BIOLOGICAL ANALOGY
-- ORGANIC: relationship between parts of building or
between the building and its settings
-- BIOMORPHIC: focuses on growth processes and movement
capabilities associated with organisms
• ROMANTIC ANALOGY
-- BY ASSOCIATION: making references
-- BY EXAGGERATION: use of contrast, excessive stimulation,
unfamiliar scale, and unfamiliar forms
• LINGUISTIC ANALOGY
-- GRAMMATICAL MODEL: elements (words) & rules (grammar)
-- EXPRESSIONIST MODEL: buildings as vehicles for
expressing an attitude towards a project
-- SEMIOTIC MODEL: using symbols literally
SEMIOTIC MODEL
SYMBOLIC ARCHITECTURE

• MECHANICAL ANALOGY
-- A machine is a house for living
-- Beauty assumes the promise of function
• PROBLEM-SOLVING ANALOGY
-- RATIONALIST: analysis, synthesis, evaluation
-- Logical, Systematic, or Parametric in Approach
• ADHOCIST ANALOGY
-- Responding to the immediate need using materials
immediately available
• PATTERN LANGUAGE ANALOGY
-- Observing patterns of environment-behavior relationships
• DRAMATURGICAL ANALOGY
-- All the world is a stage
-- The architect as director
ECOLOGICAL ARCHITECTURE

- seeks to minimize the negative environmental impact of buildings by efficiency and


moderation in the use of materials, energy, and development space. Ecological
architecture uses a conscious approach to energy and ecological conservation in the
design of the built environment.
THE PRINCIPLES OF DESIGN
ESSENTIALS OF THE STRUCTURE

THE INVISIBLE STRUCTURE


THE VISIBLE STRUCTURE
FORM – visual appearance
MASS – volume, 3 dimesional
a.DIRECTION - vertical or horizontal axis of the mass
b.SHAPE - geometric qualities
SURFACE
AREA – surface with 2 dimensions
a.TEXTURE
b.TONE
c.COLOR
THE PRINCIPLES OF DESIGN
ESSENTIALS OF THE STRUCTURE

VISUAL PROPERTIES OF FORM


SHAPE
SIZE
COLOR
LIGHT
DARKER
DARK
TEXTURE
POSITION
ORIENTATION
VISUAL INERTIA
SHAPE
THE PRINCIPLES OF DESIGN
ESSENTIALS OF THE STRUCTURE

PRIMARY SHAPES
CIRCLE
TRIANGLE
SQUARE

VISUAL INERTIA
NEUTRAL
STABLE
UNSTABLE
EQUILIBRIUM
PLATONIC SOLIDS
SPHERE
CYLINDER
CONE
PYRAMID
CUBE
FORM
REGULAR FORMS
IRREGULAR FORMS

TRANSFORMATION OF FORM
-DIMENSIONAL TRANSFORMATION
-SUBTRACTIVE TRANSFORMATION
-ADDITIVE TRANSFORMATION
-SPATIAL TENSION
-EDGE TO EDGE CONTACT
-FACE TO FACE CONTACT
-INTERLOCKING VOLUMES

-CENTRALIZED FORMS
-LINEAR FORMS
RADIAL FORMS
CLUSTERED FORMS
GRID FORMS
FORM
ARTICULATION OF FORM

SURFACE PLANS CAN BE ARTICULATED IN 4 WAYS:

1. DIFFERENT ADJACENT SURFACES, MATERIALS, COLOR, TEXTURE AND


PATTERN.
2. DEVELOPING THE CORNER
3. REMOVING THE CORNER
4. LIGHTING THE CORNER TO CREATE SHARP DISTINCTIONS
EDGES & CORNERS
CORNERS - MEETING OF 2 PLANES

4 WAYS A CORNER CAN BE VISUALLY REINFORCED

1. INTRODUCING A SEPARATE AND DISTINCT ELEMENT.


2. IF AN OPENING IS INTRODUCED TO A CORNER.
3. IF NEITHER PLANE IS EXTENDED TO DEFINE A CORNER. THIS
CONDITION DETERIORATES THE FORM’S VOLUME.
4. ROUNDING OF THE CORNER.
SURFACE
- AREAS OF MATERIALS WHICH ENCLOSE A BUILDING AND ARE OF SECONDARY IMPORTANCE
TO THE MASSES WHICH THEY CREATE.

A. TEXTURE

REFERS TO A QUALITY OF SURFACE TREATMENT. TEXTURE IS USUALLY ASSOCIATED


WITH MATERIALS.

2 WAYS IN WHICH THE ATTRIBUTES OF A SENSATIONOF GRAIN MAY VARY HARD-


SOFT, SMOOTH-ROUGH.

MATERIAL EXAMPLES OF FOUR EXTREMES:

HARD, SMOOTH - GLASS


HARD, ROUGH - BRICK, HOLLOWBLOCK
SOFT, SMOOTH - SILK
SOFT, ROUGH - WOOL
SURFACE
B. TONE

IS A VARIETY IN THE USE OF THE GRADATIONS FROM BALCK TO WHITE.

C. COLOR

COLOR AS DISTINGUISHED FROM TONE, RESULTS FROM THE HUES OF THE


SPECTRUM.

WARM COLORS
RED AND YELLOW, TEND TO ADVANCE TOWARDS THE OBSERVER.
COOL COLORS
BLUES AND GREENS, APPEARS TO RECEDE, SHOWING INFINITY,
IMMENSITY OF SPACE.

MORE NEUTRAL COLORS SHOULD BE USED FOR THE LARGER AREAS, RESERVING FOR THE
MORE BRILLIANT ACCENTS THOSE BRIGHT COLORS WHICH OVERPOWER THE COMPOSITION
UNLESS SPARINGLY USED.
PSYCHOLOGICAL EFFECTS OF COLORS:

RED
-RANGE
-PASSION
-EXCITING, STIMULATES THE BRAIN
-AGGRESSIVE QUALITY
-VIOLENCE

MEDIUM RED - HEALTH AND VITALITY


BRIGHT RED - OFTEN HAS AMOROUS CONNOTATIONS

YELLOW
-GAYETY
-STIMULATES CHEERING
-LAZY
-MOST LUMINOUS COLOR
-DEMANDS ATTENTION
-USED IN DANGEROUS LOCATIONS
PSYCHOLOGICAL EFFECTS OF COLORS:

ORANGE
-USED IN RELATIVELY SMALL AMOUNTS
-STIMULATING EFFECT

BROWN
-RESTFULL
-WARMING
-DEPRESSING IF USED ALONE, SHOULD BE COMBINED WITH ORANGE, YELLOW OR GOLD.

GRAY
-SUGGEST COLD
-DEPRESSING WHEN USED ALONE, COMBINED WITH ATLEAST ONE LIVELIER COLOR.
PSYCHOLOGICAL EFFECTS OF COLORS:

WHITE
-CHEERFULL
-PARTICULARLY USED WITH WARM COLORS.

PURPLE
-SEDATIVE AND SOOTHING
-CHEERFULNESS OR COWARDICE
-CHEAPNESS

BLUE
-PEACEFULL
-TRANQUIL
-IT REDUCES EXCITABILITY AND THEREFORE HELPS ONE TO CONCENTRATE

GREEN
-COOLING QUALITY
-SEDATIVE
COLOR USAGE

RESIDENTIAL
COMMERCIAL
INDUSTRIAL
RED
ORANGE
YELLOW
GREEN
BLUE
PURPLE
BLACK, WHITE
INSTITUTIONAL
EDUCATIONAL
DIMENSION CONTRAST VARIETY

PROPORTION RELATIONSHIPS

SCALE SIZE, MAGNITUDE

GRAVITATIONAL CURVES BALANCE EQUILIBRIUM

HIERARCHY RHYTHM REPETITION

UNITY HARMONY

CHARACTER EXPRESSIVENESS
DIMENSION
CONTRAST

TYPICAL CONTRAST
1. CONTRAST OF FORM
SHAPE
MASS

2. CONTRAST OF LINE
DIRECTION
TYPE

3. CONTRAST OF SIZE

4. CONTRAST OF TONE

COMBINATIONS
DIMENSION
PROPORTION

THE GOLDEN SECTION


MODULOR
ANTHROPOMETRICS (HUMAN DIMENSION)
MODULOR
GOLDEN SECTION
ANTHROPOMETRY

refers to the measurement of the human individual for the purposes of


understanding human physical variation.
There were eleven measurements:
1. Height
2. Stretch: Length of body from left shoulder to right middle finger when arm is
raised
3. Bust: Length of torso from head to seat, taken when seated
4. Length of head: Crown to forehead
5. Width of head: Temple to temple
6. Length of right ear
7. Length of left foot
8. Length of left middle finger
9. Length of left cubit: Elbow to tip of middle finger
10. Width of cheeks
11. Length of left little finger
DIMENSION
SCALE
GENERIC SCALE
HUMAN SCALE

1. NORMAL REQUIREMENTS OF HUMAN BEINGS


2. SIZES OF FAMILIAR MATERIALS
3. BEAUTY OR APPEARANCE
4. CHARACTER
MONUMENTAL
RESIDENTIAL
RUSTIC OR FORMAL
5. FUNCTION OR PURPOSE
CLASSROOM
THEATER
6. LOCATION AND VISUAL DISTANCE
7. ECONOMICS
BALANCE & GRAVITATIONAL CURVES
BALANCE
3 TYPES OF BALANCE
1. SYMMETRICAL BALACE MONUMENTAL EFFECT
-CENTRALIZED
-FORMAL
-RADIAL
2. UNSYMMETRICAL BALANCE INFORMAL
3. GRAVITATIONAL BALANCE PICTURESQUENESS OF
SURROUNDINGS

SYMMETRICAL
-CENTRAL AXIS
-FORMAL
-RADIAL

UNSYMMETRICAL

GRAVITATIONAL OR PICTURESQUE
HIERRARCHY

RHYTHM
- ORGANIZED MOVEMENT

2 KINDS OF RHYTHM
UNAACENTED RHYTHM
ACCENTED RHYTHM

RHYTHM MAYBE ONE OF THE FOLLOWING


A. RHYTHMIC USE OF COLOR
B. RHYTHMIC USE OF LINE
C. RHYTHMIC USE OF MOTION
D. RHYTHMIC USE OF DIRECTION
HIERRARCHY
UNITY

7 WAYS OF PRODUCING AN EFFECT OF UNITY IN A DESIGN


1. CENTRAL MOTIF, CENTER OF INTEREST. THE ATTENTION OF THE OBSERVER
MUST BE DRAWN TO THIS FOCAL POINT.
2. THE MAJOR MASSES OF THE BUILDING SHOULD DOMINATE THE LESS
IMPORTANT ONES.
3. ALL THE UNITS SHOULD TOGETHER FORM A COMPACT AND COHERENT
ENSEMBLE.
4. THE ELEMENT OF EMPHASIS MUST BE INTRODUCED
5. BY LIMITING THE AMOUNT OF TREATMENT SEEN AT ONE TIME.
6. BY SELECTING DETAIL, MATERIALS, COLORS, ETC.
7. BY SELECTING STYLES, FURNITURE AND FURNISHINGS IN HARMONY WITH THE
SURROUNDINGS.
HIERRARCHY
CHARACTER

FUNCTIONAL CHARACTER
ASSIOCIATED CHARACTER
PERSONAL CHARACTER