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Definition of the concepts

Adoption – a decision to make full use of an innovation as
the best course of action available.

Barriers – refer to certain factors obtaining in a given place
over a given time which tend to empeded/block or
decelerate the communication process. They are called
synonymously as “filters of communication”

Communication – the process by which participants create
and share information with one another in order to reach a
mutual understanding for a given purpose at any given place
over a given period of time.

Development – is a change of transformation process of
any target audience regardless of direction

Diffusion - is a particular type of communication in which
the information that is exchanged is concerned with an
innovation, or new idea.

Extension – is the process of sharing any development-
oriented – idea/concept with another.

Innovation – is anything perceived to be new by
somebody in any given place and time.

Innovation-Decision Process – is the process through which an individual (or other decision-making unit) passes from first knowledge of an innovation to forming and attitude towards it. Technology – is a design for instrumental action that reduces the uncertainty in achieving a desired outcomes. . Innovation-decision Period – refers to the length of time required to pass through the innovation-decision process. to implementation of the idea and to confirmation of this decision. to a decision to adopt or reject.

Importance of Communication in Extension .

They must be “simplified” if not “purified”. Heracletus theory/philosophy “Impermanence of being” is at word in any development situation. Rural agriculture development is a complex process both in scope content and process.  Rural agricultural development is a dynamic process.  Technological inventions which are meant for development (or change) are often times “foreign” to target beneficiaries.  Extension benefits are often times perceived to be “angels in satanic attire” . Hence.  Target beneficiaries of any extension activities/program are equally complex being – processed varied personalities in order to effect change.

Elements of the Communication Process .

Channels – are the varied ways and means. may offer to its target-beneficiary.Source – refers to the generator of any development – oriented technology. approaches and (or) strategies that are employed in the technology transfer. . techniques. Message – refers to the development-oriented technologies/idea that is generated by the source. Receiver – is the perceived target. methods. It is co-terminous to the sender. audience or beneficiary of any development-oriented technology Effects – refer to the possible consequences or outcomes that a given technology.

Source Message Receiver Channel Effect/s .

school or any group in which the target individual or audience is affiliated. .  Combination of the two above. church. Levels of Communication in Extension According to social structure  Institutional/group – communication of any given idea is through the community.  Individual – “one-on-one: or any man-to-man level.

According to Formality Formal – communication is facilitated through established norms of action. Informal – extension communication is made possible through unorganized. and casual interaction between communications. day-to-day. . Combination of the above.

Achieves a terminal relationship. 7. Translates intent into action. Establishes an information-exchange relationship. 6. Stabilizes adoption and prevents discontinuance.Extension worker is essentially the agent of change 1. 3. Diagnoses their problems 4. . Develops need for change 2. Creates intent to change in the clients. 5.

Barriers to Effective Communication .

External Factors Socio-Economic Factors • Availability of financial institution which can provide credit • Land Tenure arrangement • Economic motivation in farming • Market (inputs and outputs) • Labor situation Socio-Political Factors Political environment where communication in extension operates. Autocratic Form Cultural values which are inherent among Filipinos . Democratic vs.

External Factors. continued Socio-Psychological Factors These refer to the degree of access of communicators to potential sources of information on agricultural and rural development Social-Physical Factors These refer to the distance/existence of road/transportation network within the communication target. .

Internal Factors Sender • Credibility • Access/Availability Message-Related Factors • Relative advantage • Compatibility • Complexity • Triability • Observability .

competence of the use. . Timeliness in its use. continued Channel – Related Factors Appropriateness/ compatibility of the channel to the: 1. kind/nature of the message which is being communicated.Internal Factors. 3. kind and quality of the receiver. 4. purpose of the communication 2.

Receiver-Related Factors Socio-economic characteristics Age (not related) Education (positive) Literacy (positive) Higher social status (positive) Upward Social Mobility (positive) Large – size units (positive) Commercial (positive) Attitude towards credit (positive) More specialized operation (positive) .

Dogmatism (negative) 3. ability to cope with uncertainly (positive) 8. continued Personality variables 1.Receiver-Related Factors. Attitude towards change (positive) 7. Rationality (positive) 5. Fatalism (negative) 11. occupation (positive) . Empathy (positive) 2. ability to deal with abstraction (positive) 4. Intelligence (positive) 6. Higher aspiration for education. attitude towards science (positive) 10. Achievement Motivation (positive) 12. attitude towards education (positive) 9.

Effects-Related Factors Desirable versus undesirable consequences. . depending on whether the changes are recognized and intended by the members of a social system or not . depending on whether the effects of an innovation in a social system are functional of dysfunctional. Anticipated (Expected) versus unanticipated consequences. Direct versus indirect consequences. depending on whether the change to an individual or society occur in immediate response to an innovation or as a second-order result.

Distributive property – transport of an event through space. Agricultural extension worker videotapes a TV show farm program relevant in the situation of his client. Ex. A slide set or video program of any technology can present the process in less than 10 minutes even if the procedure actually takes longer. . He can use the videotape to reinforce his farmers’ classes. Ex.Properties of Media Fixative property – transport of an event through time. Manipulative property – transformation of an event. A television farm program informs not only rice farmers in Laguna but also those in nearby provinces up to Central Luzon about the advantages of green manure. Ex.

. Pamphlet is an introductory print material in the popular format. Extension teaching methods Radio Television Print Leaflet refers to a small. Poster refers to a single sheet visuals printed on thick papers or boards containing limited textual information and frequently dominantly with pictorial presentation. folded publications used to provide reference on short and single subject matter.

.A medium to show or display outwardly especially by visible signs or actions to show publicly especially for purposes of competition of demonstrations (Webster. features and advertising (Webster. p. p160). Exhibits . p31).Campaign refers to a connected series of operations designed to bring about a particular result (/Webster. Educational campaign . p.796). Fact sheet is a loose sheet of paper containing information about a person. A connected series of operations to bring about some desired results (Klepper.435). Newspaper refers to a paper that is printed and distributed usually daily or weekly and that contains news. thing or innovation. Wall newspaper publishes articles about research results and usually tacked on bulletin boards and walls. articles of opinion.

present new information and explain procedure. Usually.Overhead transparencies . This method is used to describe and explain a subject matter. It is . Method Demonstration -It is a short-time demonstration given by an extension worker or trained leader for the purpose of teaching skills to a group or to show a better way to carry out a practice.Transparency refers to a large format 8”x10” film used with the overhead projector.The resource speaker or facilitator delivers a prepared talk and may distribute handouts and use audio- visual aids. Slides . sides use a 35mm film format mounted on a 2x2 inch (50x50mm) slide mounts.refer to a small format photographic transparency individually mounted for one at a time projection. Lecture .

Short courses .Courses may run for duration of 1-6 weeks depending on the subject matter. Leader training meetings General meetings Tour and Field trips Field Days . and are usually run in a more informal and less highly structured manner. and are usually run in a more informal and less highly structured manner. Field Days .These are usually opportunities to hold method or result demonstrations on a slightly larger scale.These are usually opportunities to hold method or result demonstrations on a slightly larger scale. .

Panel Discussion .This is used when presenting divergent ideas. opinions and experiences of “recognized” authorities and to generate interaction between trainees and “experts”. dances and drama . Symposium Farm and home visit Office calls Personal letters Result demonstration SMS Music. plays and puppets – folk songs.

Information may contain text. Electronic Media Internet – a global network of computers. surf the worldwide web. read the day’s news headlines and have access to so many other information. pictures. sound and video. . A browser is used to view these information on the web. Browser – is a software you connect to the internet to see information via the web. you can send e-mails. You can also advertise yourself at the net by creating your own web page. watch real time videos. worldwide web or www or web – contains web pages or information that are made available via the internet using hypertext links. chat with friends. send data or computer files to other computers. connect to other computer databases. On it.


Intranet – a private internet or network of computers. Search engine – are special sites on the web. Website – contains web pages like paper pages or a book. etc. It has a home page. Extranet – are several related intranets connected with each other (supplier organization. It is where you can type in keywords to search for web sites. For example. The staff can communicate with any other staff using the instant messaging software. a R&D Unit. clients.) .

Examples are PCARRD-DOST. departments. In other words. their computers are linked with the IT center as the server location and manager or administrator. centers. It is a network of computers in a small area.LAN – means Local Area Network. It is a network of LAN or Intranets. PREGINET or Philippine Research Education Government Information Network. . institutes and other units are already connected or wired. In an school. WAN – means Wide Area Network.