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Contextualizing Assessment

Dr. Carlo Magno
Center for Learning and Assessment
Advance Organizer
• Why is it necessary to contextualize
assessment tasks?
Importance of contextualizing
assessment tasks
• (1) access
• (2) learning boost
• (3) engagement in the task
Major features: DepEd K to 12
Classroom Assessment
What to check?
Check for alignment between the course
Content Validity

objectives and the competency covered in

the task
Check if the assessment is appropriate with
the form assessment task made (paper and
pen vs. performance-based)
Minor: Rules in writing the tasks

Minor: Syntax (grammar)


Minor: Suitability for learners

• Objective: Classify soluble and insoluble
– Assessment task?
• Objective: Create a promotional material for the
Chocolate Hills
– Assessment Task?
• Objective: Interpret information obtained from a
– Assessment task?
• Objective: Give the advantage of multithreading.
Constructive Alignment
 Objective: Interpret a table showing the population density of
the world (Understanding)
Test Item: Given a bar graph, report the years where the
population increased and decreased, describe the pattern of
growth each year and provide possible explanations for the
growth pattern.
 Objective: Draw a picture using the principle of balance.
Performance task: Draw a picture in the box showing the
principle of balance.
 Objective: Recognize fallacies in an argument (Understanding)
Test item: Read the given article and list down five fallacious
statements found.
 Objective: Run in a 100-yard dash (psychomotor)
Performance Assessment: Students need to complete a run in
100 yard dash.
Matching Items with Criterion Item
• Instruction: Indicate whether the matching of the objective and
item is suitable.
• 1. Objective: Given a performance of an instrumental or vocal
melody containing a melodic or rhythmic error, and given the score
for the melody, be able to point out the error.

• Criterion item: The instructor will play the melody of the attached
musical score on the piano and will make an error either in rhythm
or melody. Raise your hand when the error occurs.

• Is the item Suitable? ___ Yes

____ No
____Can’t tell
Matching Items with Criterion Item
• 2. Objective: Given mathematical equations
containing one unknown, be able to solve for the

• Criterion Item: Sam weighs 97 kilos. He weighs 3.5

kilos more than Barrey. How much does Barry weigh?

• Is the item Suitable? ___ Yes

____ No
____Can’t tell
Matching Items with Criterion Item
• 3. Objective: Be able to demonstrate familiarity
with sexual anatomy and physiology

• Criterion Item: Draw and label a sketch of the

male and female reproductive systems.

• Is the item Suitable? ___ Yes

____ No
____Can’t tell
Matching Items with Criterion Item
• 4. Objective: Given any one of the computers in our
product line, in its original carton, be able to install and
adjust the machine, preparing it for use. Criteria: The
machine shows normal indication, and the area is free of
debris and cartons

• Criterion item: Select one of the cartons containing one of

our model XX computers, and install it for the secretary in
Room 45. Make sure it is ready for use and the area is left
• Is the item Suitable? ___ Yes
____ No
____Can’t tell
Matching Items with Criterion Item
• 5. Objective: When given a set of paragraphs (that use
words within your vocabulary), some of which are missing
topic sentences, be able to identify the paragraph without
topic sentences.

• Criterion Item: Turn to page 29 in your copy of Silas

Marner. Underline the topic sentence of each paragraph
on that page.

• Is the item Suitable? ___ Yes

____ No
____Can’t tell
Observe the two sets of objectives
• Sequence the evolution • Create a program that will
of different OS compute the grades of
• Recognize specific students using java.
conditions that will put • Construct a pole that can
people at risk in a supporting a 30 sq flat
building wood on top.
• Select from the list what • Demonstrate how to
information is useful convince tourist to visit
when performing a the old church.
fitness assessment • Sell a new kind of coffee
• Convert moles to among customers in a
kilograms coffee shop.
Paper and pen vs. Performance-based
• Format: binary, multiple • Format: demonstrations,
choice, matching type, performances, actual
short answer work (authentic)
• Measure complex
• Measure discreet skills integrated skills
(cognitive) (cognitive, psychomotor,

• Group administration • Individual or several

Determine if the objectives will require paper
and pen or performance-based task
• 1. State the domain and range of a given function
• 2. Solve systems of linear equations in two variables by the
graphical method
• 3. Draw the slope of the given equation
• 4. Simplify complex fractions
• 5. Deliver a speech to persuade people to donate for the
• 6. Multiply and divide rational algebraic expression
• 7. List hazards of working with chemicals
• 8. Classify the properties of substances as to physical or chemical
and extrinsic or intrinsic
• 9. Cite evidence of chemical changes
• 10. Present ways to prevent walls from easily cracking during
Paper and pencil assessment
• Binary type – remembering - understanding
• Matching type - remembering
• Multiple choice – remembering,
understanding, applying, analyzing, evaluating
• Supply type - remembering
Principles of Assessment
• P1: Assessment should be well-aligned with
educational standards intended for learners
• P2: Formative assessment needs to scaffold
students in the summative assessment
• P3: Assessment should become more like instruction
• P4: Assessment results needs to be used by teachers
to help students learn better
• P5: Assessment is not used to threaten and
intimidate students.
• P6: The teacher needs to engage in a PLC to engage
in better assessment
• P7: Assessment is a technical competency
How is assessment contextualized?
• Authentic-based Assessment
– students are engaged in applying skills and
knowledge to solve real world problems, giving
the sense of authenticity.
– It is a type of assessment that requires students
to demonstrate specific skills and competencies,
that realistically represent problems and
situations likely to be encountered in daily life
(Archbald, 1991)
Answer the following Questions
• What makes tasks authentic?
• Give an example of tasks that are authentic.
• How will you assess this task?
Authentic tasks (Wiggins, 1998)
• Six Standards for Judging the Degree of
• 1. Is realistic – The task replicates the ways in
which a person’s knowledge and abilities are
tested in real world situations.
• 2. Requires judgment and innovation – The
student has to use knowledge and skills to
solve unstructured problems, and solution
involves more than following a set of rules.
Authentic tasks (Wiggins, 1998)
• 3. Asks the students to do the subject – the student
has to carry out exploration and work within the
discipline of the subject area, rather than restating
what is already known.
• 4. Replicates or simulates the contents in which
adults are tested in the workplace, in civic life, and
personal life – Contexts involve specific situations
that have particular constraints , purposes, and
audiences. Students need to experience what it is
like to do tasks in the workplace or real life context.
Authentic tasks (Wiggins, 1998)
• 5. Assesses the student’s ability to efficiently
and effectively use a repertoire of knowledge
and skill to negotiate a complex task –
Students should be required to integrate all
knowledge and skills needed, rather than
demonstrate competence of isolated
knowledge and skills.
Authentic tasks (Wiggins, 1998)
• 6. Allows appropriate opportunities to rehearse,
practice, consult resources, and get feedback on and
refine performances and products – Rather than rely
on secure tests as an audit of performance, learning
should be focused through cycles of performance-
feedback-revision-performance, on the production of
known high quality products and standards, and
learning in context.
Authentic tasks (Newmann, 1992)
• Construction of meaning (use of reasoning and higher-
order thinking skills)
– Organization of information
– Consideration of alternatives
• Disciplined Inquiry (thinking like “experts” searching for in-
depth understanding)
– Disciplinary content
– Disciplinary process
– Elaborated written communication
Authentic tasks (Newmann, 1992)
• Value beyond school (aesthetic, utilitarian, or
personal value apart form documenting the
competence of the learner)
– Problem connected to the world
– Audience beyond the school
• Authentic tasks “demand construction of
knowledge through disciplined inquiry and
result in discourse, products, and performance
that have value or meaning beyond success in
Example of a task Prompt:
Example of a Performance Task
• Leaning Competency: Determine the
concentration of a solution
• Contextualized learning competency:
Determine that concentration of solutions
used in household cleaning
Example of Performance-based task
• Final Product
• Chemists are often required to determine the
concentration of unknown acidic or basic
solutions. You will be provided with an unknown
solution that is either acidic or basic. Your
problem is to design an experiment, using the
materials (and/or others) listed below, to
determine the concentration of the unknown
solution provided. Express your concentration of
the unknown material in moles of H+ (aq) per
liter or moles of OH- (aq) per liter of solution.
• a) Under the heading PROCEDURE list in order the steps of the procedure
you will use to solve the problem. You may include a diagram to help
illustrate your plans for the experiment. Include any safety procedures you
would follow.
• b) Construct a DATA TABLE or indicate any other method that you could
use to record the observations and results that will be obtained.
• Materials
• 2 beakers, 100 ml 1 burette, 50 ml 4 Erlenmeyer flasks, 250 ml
• 1 filter funnel, small 1 graduated cylinder, 50 ml 1 burette stand
• safety goggles calculator 1 wash bottle of distilled
• 1 white tile hydrochloric acid, 0.1 mol/L sodium hydroxide, 0.1
• phenolphthalein indicator bromothymol blue indicator unknown
Yes NO A. Procedures for investigation
Method includes details which will clearly
1. Detailed
result in accurate determination of
concentration of unknown, including steps
below and repeated trials.
Suggests method to determine molarity of
2. Sequence to plan
unknown solution
First identifies unknown solution as an acid
3. General strategy or base using appropriate indicator, then
suggests titration using neutralizing solution.
Safety goggles should be worn; care in
4. Safety procedures
handling acids and bases.
Appropriate equipment and materials are
5. Use of equipment/diagram suggested, especially use of burette and
Yes No B. Plan for recording and
organizing observations/data
1. Space for manipulation of data Could include space for averaging data;
or qualitative description stipulation of indicator used.
Plan is comprehensive so that all
observations and data generated by plan
2. Matched to plan
may be recorded; e.g., space for repeated
trials is included.
Organized so that recording follows data
3. Organized sequentially
as generated.
All columns and rows are identified;
4. Labelled fully (units included)
correct units of measurement are used.
Solution used to titrate unknown is
5. Variables identified
indicated as acid or base.
• Create an authentic based-task
– Select one learning competency from the curriculum
guide for a particular grade level
– Contextualize this learning competency by making it
specific to the situation being studied
– Output: Indicate what will the students do, submit or
– Provide the tasks: Group or individual, materials,
procedure, how long is the task, where will it be done,
is help needed, is the work done outside or inside the
– Provide 3 criteria to mark the task
• Learning competency
• Nature of the final product
• Performance task
• Criteria
Contextualizing the learning
• Original: Write an essay
• Contextualized: Write an essay narrating you helped
your mother buy fruits in the market.
• Original: Solve problems involving dissimilar fractions
• Contextualized: Solve problems involving dissimilar
fractions concerning slicing fruits and vegetables
• Original: Explain the interaction of marine life and
• Contextualized: Explain the interaction of mangroves
and moss along the coastal area
• Nature of the outcome:
– What will the students do?
– Where will they show the response?
• Performance task:
– Group work of individual?
– How long is the task?
– How long is the preparation time?
– Where will the task be done?
– Materials needed
– Procedure to be followed
– Where will the answers be placed?
• Criteria:
– 3 criteria
– Be specific on the characteristics you will look for
– Example:
• Accuracy of the answer to the problem
• 3 explanations were provided
• The proper tools are used
• The vocabulary selected are clear
• The ideas are organized from introduction to the