Superposition Theorem

Superposition Theorem
The superposition principle states that the voltage across (or current through) an element in a linear circuits is the algebraic sum of the voltage across (or current through) that element due to each independent source acting alone.
Current Source open circuit(0 A) Voltage Source short circuit (0 V)

2

3. Find the output (voltage or current) due to that active source.Superposition Theorem Step to apply: 1. Find the total contribution by adding algebraically all the contribution due to the independent source. Turn off all independent sources except one source. 2. Repeat step 1 for each other independent sources. 3 .

i ! i1  i 2 .j i e + L N R1 V - j i1 i2 R1 L N + V1 - e L N + V2 - R1 V ! V 1  V 2.

Example v ! v1  v 2 v1 ! 2V . v 2 ! 8V @ v ! 10V .

We begin by calculating the branch current caused by the voltage source of 120 V. as shown in Figure 2.determine the branches current using superposition theorem. Figure 1   Solution The application of the superposition theorem is shown in Figure 1. . By substituting the ideal current with open circuit. we deactivate the current source. where it is used to calculate the branch current.

. Therefore v 1  120 v 1 v1 =0   6 3 24 where v1 = 30 V The equations for the current in each branch.Figure 2  To calculate the branch current. the node voltage across the 3Ÿ resistor must be known.

as shown . we deactivate the ideal voltage source with a short circuit.120  30 = 15 A i'1 =  6 30 i'2 = = 10 A 3 30 ' = i' = i3 =5A 4 6 In order to calculate the current cause by the current source.

 To determine the branch current. solve the node voltages across the 3Ÿ dan 4Ÿ resistors as shown in Figure 4 v3 v3 v3  v4   3 6 2 =0  The two node voltages are v4  v3 v4   12 = 0 2 4 .

. we obtain   v3 = -12 V v4 = -24 V Now we can find the branches current. By solving these equations.

. add the currents due to both the current and voltage source.To find the actual current of the circuit.

. 2k.Problem 2k.Superposition . 4mA 12V ± + 2mA I0 1k.

I¶0 = -4/3 mA . 2mA I¶0 1k. 2k.2mA Source Contribution 2k.

I¶¶0 = 0 . I¶¶0 2k. 4mA 1k.4mA Source Contribution 2k.

I¶¶¶0 = -4 mA . ± + 1k. I¶¶¶0 2k.12V Source Contribution 12V 2k.

Example  find v using superposition .

one independent source at a time. dependent source remains KCL: i = i1 + i2 Ohm's law: i = v1 / 1 = v1 KVL: 5 = i (1 + 1) + i2(2) KVL: 5 = i(1 + 1) + i1(2) + 2v1 10 = i(4) + (i1+i2)(2) + 2v1 10 = v1(4) + v1(2) + 2v1 v1 = 10/8 V .

i2)(2) + 2v2 -2v2 = [v2 + (5+2v2)/2](2) + 2v2 -4v2 = 2v2 + 5 +2v2 -8v2 = 5 => v2 = .5/8 V from superposition: v = -5/8 + 10/8 v = 5/8 V .Consider the other independent source KCL: i = i1 + i2 KVL: i(1 + 1) + i2(2) + 5 = 0 i2(2) + 5 = i1(2) + 2v2 Ohm's law: i(1) = v2 v2(2) + i2(2) +5 = 0 => i2 = -(5+2v2)/2 i2(2) + 5 = i1(2) + 2v2 -2v2 = (i .

We will consider each source acting alone. the only way we've solved sinusoidal steady-state problems. if we want to use phasors.Example 30sin 5t 2 os10t Note that the voltage source and the current source have two different frequencies. we MUST use superposition to solve this problem. Remember that sin [t ! cos . and then find v0(t) by superposition. Thus.

[t  90o .

Since.Example 0s t 2 s10t Consider first the 30sin 5t acting alone. 30sin 5t ! 30 cos .

5t  90o .we have [ = 5 and ZC ! 1 1 ! !  j1 j[C j 5(0 2) 0’  90 1 V0 Z L ! j[ L ! j 5 .

Example Use voltage division 30’  90 1 V0 ZC ! 1 1 ! !  j1 j[C j5(0 2) ZL [L 5 Z2 V ! VS Z1  Z 2 1 0 ( j1)( j 5) 5 Z2 ! ! !  j1.25 1.25’  90o 1 V0 ! 30’  90o ! 30’  90o .25  j1  j5 j4 Z1 ! 8  j1.

o.

631’  171.1o 1 v0 (t ) ! 4.25 8.631cos .881 1 V0 ! 4.097 ’  8. 8  j1.

12o ! 4.5t  171.631sin .

5t  81.12o .

24o 1.2) ! j 2 2’0 I V ! YV ! I Y For a parallel combination of Y's we have YL ! 1 1 ! !  j 10 j[ L j10 Yeq ! § Yi ! 1 8  j 2  j 0.125  j1.Example V I V02 YC ! j[C ! j10(0.904’86.24o .24o 2’0o V02 ! ! 1.90 Yeq ! 1.1 ! 0.05’  86.05 cos 10t  86.904’86.24o 2 v0 (t ) ! 1.

.

Example 30sin 5t 2 os10t 1 v0 (t ) ! 4.631sin .

05cos .5t  81.12o 2 v0 (t ) ! 1.

24o 10 By superposition 1 2 v0 (t ) ! v0 (t )  v0 (t ) v0 (t ) ! 4.631sin . t  86.

5t  81.05cos .12o  1.

24 o 10 . t  86.

University End Examination Questions .

Verify the result with other method .Using super position theorem find the current in 2 ohms resistor.

Using super position theorem. find the current I through (4 + j3). impedance .

Using super position theorem find Vab in the figure .

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