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Training

on
Effluent Treatment Plant(ETP)
By
Hari Om
PNE(WWTP)

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INDEX

1. Introduction/Background
2. Reason for treatment/Adverse effect on environment
3. Terminology in Waste Water Treatment
4. Industrial effluent characteristics
5. Effluent Standard
6. Waste Water Treatment methodology
7. Dosing of chemicals
8. Treated effluent distribution
9. Sludge Disposal Management

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Introduction/background

Due to unprecedented growth of population with rapid urbanization as


well as industrialization the entire world specifically developing countries
like India is suffering from Clean and safe water supply.

Further, environmental issues like Global Warming and Climate change


is likely to reduce water tables and disrupt water supplies in many areas,
making water even more costly and energy intensive to obtain in the
future.

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Introduction/Background

"Anyone who can solve


the problems of water will
be worthy of two Nobel
prizes - one for peace and
one for science."
John F. Kennedy

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Introduction/Background

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Reason for treatment/Adverse effect on environment

The production of large quantities of malodorous gases from


the decomposition of the organic compounds presents.

Untreated wastewater /sewage containing a large amount of


organic matter, if discharged into a river / stream, will deplete
the dissolved oxygen of the stream, which may cause fish kills
and other undesirable effects leading to disturbed the natural
ecological balance.

Wastewater may also contain nutrients, which can stimulate


the growth of aquatic plants and algal blooms, thus leading to
eutrophication of the lakes and streams.

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Reason for treatment/Adverse effect on environment

Untreated wastewater usually contains numerous pathogenic,


or disease causing microorganisms and toxic compounds, that
may severely affects the public as well as community health
and also many times it may spread epidemic like malaria,
typhoid. Further, these may contaminate the land or the water
body, where such sewage is disposed.

Hence, wastewater treatment is a most basic necessity and not


an option in today’s perspective for meeting the serious
challenges like meeting clean and pure water demand,
conservation of water resources and maintenance of safe
water table.

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Terminology in Waste Water Treatment

Mixed Liquor Suspended Solids (MLSS):MLSS


are the amount of total suspended solid material (organic and
inorganic) in the mixed liquor sample taken from Aeration Tanks.
MLSS is the indication of microbial growth in Aeration Tanks.
High MLSS means high microbial growth in Aeration Tank.
Normal range of it 3000-3500 mg/l.
Sludge Volume Index(SVI):
The sludge volume index (SVI) is the volume in millilitres
occupied by 1 g of a suspension after 30 min settling. SVI
typically is used to monitor settling characteristics of
activated sludge and other biological suspensions.

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Terminology in Waste Water Treatment

Coagulation : a process by which a chemical known as


coagulant neutralizes repulsive forces between the particles.
Agglomeration of particles takes place upon collision. e.g. PAC,
Polydadmac, Alum etc.

Flocculation : a process of agglomeration of neutralized


particles into a larger and heavier flocs leading to faster settling
followed by sedimentation. Chemical applied is known as
Flocculent.e.g. Latex , Dry Polymer

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Terminology in Waste Water Treatment

BOD: Biochemical oxygen demand involves the measurement


of the dissolved oxygen used by microorganisms in the
biochemical oxidation of organic matter

COD: Chemical Oxygen Demand is defined as the amount of a


specified oxidant that reacts with the sample under controlled
conditions. The quantity of the oxidant consumed is expressed
in terms of its oxygen equivalence.

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Industrial Effluent Characteristics
Inorganic Waste :
-poor in BOD value
- high COD
- may contains toxic components
- do not produce color, odor and other
environmental nuisance

Organic waste:
- high BOD value
- low COD value
- produce color , odor
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Industrial Effluent Characteristics

Depends on its sources it may be inorganic or


organic in nature
Inorganic sources :
Effluents from cement, Electroplating, Steel making,
Metal processing industries contains relatively higher
proportions of inorganic matters.
Organic Sources :
Effluents generated from industries like dairies,
distilleries, tanneries, polymer processing units,
vegetable oil and food processing units, sugar industries
are rich in organic contents. Municipalities and
Domestic wastes are also rich in organic constituents.
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Effluent Standard

 Revised Standards notified in Gazette of India


on 18th March, 2008.

 These Standards are amended under


Environment (Protection) Rules, 1986.

 The Rules are called Environment (Protection)


Amendment Rules, 2008

 Central Pollution Control Board(CPCB) monitor


the treated effluent standard

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Effluent Standard

Limiting Value
Parameters Concentration Quantum
(mg/l except for pH) (Kg/TMT of crude
processed)
pH 6.0 – 8.5 -
Oil & Grease 5.0 2.0

BOD 3 days, 270C 15.0 6.0

COD 125.0 50.0

TSS 20.0 8.0

Phenols 0.35 0.14

Sulphides 0.5 0.2

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Effluent Standard
 Limit for quantity of effluent discharged

 400 M3/1000 MT of crude processed

 For Refineries located in high rain fall area -


700 M3/1000 MT of crude processed during
rainy days

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Waste Water Treatment Methodology

Design Capacity of WWTP:415m3/hr


WWTP Consist of three section
 Refinery section:(120+30)m3/hr
REP section:(60+30)m3/hr
CRU-MSQ section:(40+135)m3/hr
o135m3/hr Township sewer and 60m3/hr plant sewer
are also treated in above three sections.

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Waste Water Treatment Methodology

Source of effluent to WWTP


Effluent from Refinery-I&II operation
Effluent from caustic wash
 Crude & Slop tanks bottom drain
 O&MS-Loading, Unloading & Tank Farm
Process effluent from laboratory
 Cleaning & washing from process units
Cooling Tower blow down
 Effluent from DHDT block
Effluent from DM plant
 Domestic & Sanitary waste

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Waste Water Treatment Methodology

All the Process Contaminated Water finds its way to the


Centralized Effluent Treatment Plant through the Oily
Water Sewer System (OWS)

In the Effluent Treatment Plant the wastewater is


subjected to Physico-Chemical and Biological
Treatment to make the water reusable

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Waste Water Treatment

Waste water treatment process have three section

Primary Section Secondary Section


(Biological Tertiary Section
(Phisco-Chemical
Treatment) Treatment) (Advance Treatment)
TPI ,Equalization Tanks, BioTower, Aerators PSF,ACF,RO
Flash Mixer, Flocculator, & Clarifiers
DAF

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Waste Water Treatment Methodology

PH
MRS TPI Surge Ponds adjustment Flash Mixer
tank

Aeration Flocculater
Clarifier Bio tower DAF
tank

Re use to
Guard Pond CWP TTP cooling
towers

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Waste Water Treatment Methodology

Primary Treatment
TPI(Tilted Plate Interceptor): Removes free oil(˃60μm) & settable
organic & inorganic pollutant, TSS
 DAF(Dissolve Air Floatation): Removes emulsified oils

Secondary Treatment
 Bio Tower(Trickling filter): Removes BOD,COD & Phenol
Aeration Tanks: Removes BOD,COD & Sulphide
Clarifier: Removes : Turbidity

Tertiary Treatment
Pressure Sand Filter: Removes TSS
Activated Carbon Filter: Removes odor, COD & color improvement
RO(Reverse Osmosis): Removes TDS

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Waste Water Treatment

Typical Tilted Plate Interceptor

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Waste Water Treatment Methodology

Dissolve Air Floatation Unit

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Waste Water Treatment

Dissolve Air Floatation Mechanism

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Waste Water Treatment Methodology

Bio Tower/Trickling Filter


Bio-Tower / Trickling filter is an attached-growth, biological process that
uses an inert contact medium to attract microorganisms, which form a
film on the medium surface.
As wastewater flows over the contact media a biological slime layer (i. e.,
zoo
gleal slime) develops.
Dissolved organic pollutants in the wastewater are transported into the
slime layer, where biological oxidation takes place.

Organic pollutants are removed by the biological slime film, which


consists of various microorganisms.

The oxygen required for organic degradation is supplied by air


circulating through the filter induced by natural draft or ventilation.

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Waste Water Treatment

Bio Tower/Trickling Filter

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Waste Water Treatment Methodology

Activated Sludge Process


The activated-sludge process is an aerobic, continuous flow, secondary
treatment system that uses sludge-containing, active, complex populations
of aerobic microorganisms to break down organic matter in wastewater.

Activated sludge is a flocculated mass of microbes comprised mainly of


bacteria and protozoa. Bacteria use a portion of the organic matter to
obtain energy to synthesize the remaining organic material into new cells.

Only a portion of the original waste is actually oxidized to low-energy


compounds such as nitrate, sulfate, and carbon dioxide; the remainder of
the waste is synthesized into cellular material. In addition, many
intermediate products are formed before the end products.

In general, the bacteria in the activated-sludge process include those in the


genera Pseudomonas, Zoogloea, Achromobacter, Flavobacterium, Nocardia,
Bdellovibrio, Mycobacterium, Nitrosomonas, and Nitrobacter. An adequate
population of the nitrifying bacteria, Nitrosomonas and Nitrobacter, must
be maintained.
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Waste Water Treatment Methodology

Activated Sludge Process

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Waste Water Treatment

Clarification &Filtration
Secondary and Final clarifiers and sludge thickeners are gravity
separation devices and follow Stoke’s law for settling or thickening of
solids.
De-watering poly-electrolytes are used to enhance sludge separation and
settling rates.
Treated effluent after clarification contains very low concentration of
suspended solids and is sent to tertiary treatment
Filtration is the most common tertiary unit operation used for polishing of
treated water
Pressure Sand Filters, Granular media filters, Dual media filters and
Activated Carbon filters are the most common polishing equipment for
treated water.
Ultra-filtration and Reverse Osmosis techniques are used where the
treated effluent was intended to be used as Boiler Feed Water

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Waste Water Treatment Methodology

Basic Equation of activated sludge Process:

*New cells require C,H,O,N &P for growth.

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Dosing of Chemicals

Ferric Alum: For coagulation


Polyelectrolyte: For flocculation
Urea: As a nutrient to nitrogen for bacterial
growth
DAP(Di Ammonium Phosphate):As a nutrient
to provide nitrogen & Phosphorus for bacterial
growth

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Treated effluent distribution
STORM
WATER ECO-
FIRE PARK
WATER AND OTHERS

P REFINERY-1
L (WWTP)
A
N
COOLING
T
FIRE TOWERS
S
WATER
CLEAR
A
WATER
N
REFINRY POND
D
(EXP) FIRE
(WWTP)) WATER
T
O
TTP
W
N
S
H
I
P PETRO
CHEM
(WWTP).
OUT LET
FROM
COMPLEX

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Sludge Disposal Management
Two types of Sludge are generated in WWTP
 Oily Sludge: Oily sludge is generated from TPI bottom,
DAF, Cleaning of Surge Ponds and Tanks M&I and stored in
Sludge Lagoon. Oily sludge is classified in the category of
hazardous waste which can be disposed only after removing
oil content up to safe permissible limit. This is done by
bioremediation of oily sludge
 Bioremediation: Bioremediation is a waste
management technique in which oil is biologically
degraded by bacterium consortium in presence of air. After
bioremediation, oily sludge is converted to bio sludge
which can be disposed by landfilling.

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Sludge Disposal Management

Bio Sludge: Bio Sludge is generated from Aeration Tanks


by draining excessive MLSS to sludge drying beds. Water is
removed from bio sludge through percolation and recycled to
WWTP. After drying of sludge, it is tested in QC for heavy
metals, if it is found within limit, it is disposed in low land
area.

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Sludge Disposal Management

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