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November 28, 1928

28,579 Lines

927 Employees

Telephone Operator
Telecommunication
Infrastructures were
destroyed

Switching Operators

Headset Rotary
Invention of modem

12,00 telephones

Underground
man-made holes
Filipino Controlled
Corporation

Ramon Cojuangco
Video cassette recorder

Fax Machines

Cellular Phones

Red Payphones
Mobile Development

Zero Backlog
Video, Voice, and Data

Not Switch but Add-on

SMART
Manuel V. Pangilinan

MERALCO

NLEX
TELE COMMUNICATIONS

Distant Exchange of information

TELECOMMUNICATIONS

Exchange of information between distant sources


Sample X Sample Y
Sample X Sample Y
Sample X Sample Y
International Toll Switch

Domestic Toll Switch

Tandem Switch

Local Switch
Packets send data to its destination.

Packets are pulses of light from cable to router to destination (network).

If no congestion, there is no difficulty in sending the


data.

If there is a disturbance, the signal is blurred,


jittering, and lagging.
Not all bits are equal. There must always be a
Scheduling of Internet through Technology Packets.

According to research, 5PM – 10pm is the peak


hours of the Philippines.
Early Forms

• Dial Up
• Leased Line

Modern Forms

• DSL
• Cable
• Wireless
Laboratory of PLDT where OJT works and trains.

Where they configure networks, create prototypes, do some testing for PLDT
Solutions

Python is the recommended programming


language.

They use OSI Layers.


Layer Function Example
Services that are used with end user
Application – 7 SMTP
applications
Formats the data so that it can be viewed by JPG, GIF, HTTPS, SSL,
Presentation – 6
the user ( Encrypt – Decrypt ) and TLS
Establishes or ends connection between two
Session – 5 NetBIOS and PPTP
hosts
Responsible for transport protocol and error
Transport – 4 TCP and UDP
handling
Routers and Layer 3
Network – 3 Reads the IP address from packet
Switches

Data Link – 2 Reads the MAC address from the data packet Switches

Physical – 1 Sends data on to the physical wires Hubs, NICS, and Cables
Routers

Hubs

Servers

Fiber Optics

Installed Cables
send help po pls