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HRM

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You are on page 1of 21

Distributions, and Graphic Presentation

Chapter 2

GOALS

•Present a frequency table as a bar chart or a pie

chart.

•Organize quantitative data into a frequency

distribution.

•Present a frequency distribution for quantitative data

using histograms, frequency polygons, and

cumulative frequency polygons.

2

Bar Charts

3

Pie Charts

4

Pie Chart Using Excel

5

Frequency Distribution

A Frequency

distribution is a

grouping of data into

mutually exclusive

categories showing

the number of

observations in each

class.

6

Frequency Table

7

Relative Class Frequencies

frequencies to show the fraction of the total number

of observations in each class.

A relative frequency captures the relationship between

a class total and the total number of observations.

8

Frequency Distribution

into two equal parts. This is the average

of the upper and lower class limits.

Class frequency: The number of

observations in each class.

Class interval: The class interval is

obtained by subtracting the lower limit of

a class from the lower limit of the next

class.

9

EXAMPLE – Creating a Frequency

Distribution Table

wants to develop tables, charts,

and graphs to show the typical

selling price on various dealer

lots. The table on the right

reports only the price of the 80

vehicles sold last month at

Whitner Autoplex.

10

Constructing a Frequency Table -

Example

A useful recipe to determine the number of classes (k) is

the “2 to the k rule.” such that 2k > n.

There were 80 vehicles sold. So n = 80. If we try k = 6, which

means we would use 6 classes, then 26 = 64, somewhat less

than 80. Hence, 6 is not enough classes. If we let k = 7, then 27

128, which is greater than 80. So the recommended number of

classes is 7.

The formula is: i (H-L)/k where i is the class interval, H is

the highest observed value, L is the lowest observed value,

and k is the number of classes.

($35,925 - $15,546)/7 = $2,911

Round up to some convenient number, such as a multiple of 10

or 100. Use a class width of $3,000

11

Constructing a Frequency Table -

Example

12

Constructing a Frequency Table

selling prices into the

classes.

of items in each class.

13

Relative Frequency Distribution

distribution, each of the class frequencies is divided by the

total number of observations.

14

Graphic Presentation of a

Frequency Distribution

are:

Histograms

Frequency polygons

Cumulative frequency distributions

15

Histogram

quantitative data is very similar to the bar chart showing the

distribution of qualitative data. The classes are marked on

the horizontal axis and the class frequencies on the vertical

axis. The class frequencies are represented by the heights

of the bars.

16

Histogram Using Excel

17

Frequency Polygon

A frequency polygon

also shows the shape

of a distribution and is

similar to a histogram.

It consists of line

segments connecting

the points formed by

the intersections of the

class midpoints and the

class frequencies.

18

Cumulative Frequency Distribution

19

Cumulative Frequency Distribution

20

End of Chapter 2

21

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