Participation and Empowerment
Participation is good for people and performance
. Research on group dynamics was found to overcome resistance to change.Introduction to participation and empowerment:
One of the most important foundations of OD is the participation and empowerment model. These pillars of OD practice are validated by research and practice. Increase commitment to the organization. reduce stress levels & make people feel better about themselves.
² Eg: autonomous work groups. Participation is an especially effective form of empowerment.To empower is to give someone power/authority.
. search conferences etc are all predicated on the belief that increased participation will lead to better solutions.
OD interventions are deliberately designed to increase involvement & participation by org leaders & members. team building. quality of work life programs. Participation enhances empowerment and empowerment in turn enhances performance and individual well-being. survey feedback. quality circles.
.Rules of thumb such as:
² ´involve all those who are a part of the problem or part of the solutionµ ² ´have decisions made by those who are closest to the problemsµ.
OD interventions are basically methods for increasing participation. The entire field of OD is about empowerment.
Robert Quinn and Gretchen Spreitzer found 2 different views about empowerment:
Mechanistic: top ²down delegation of decision making with clear boundaries and strict accountability that increases managerial control. The authors feel that this view is the more useful perspective. growth and change. They believed that this view was about risk taking.
. Organic: bottom-up and less controlling.
People will not naturally embrace the needed change & 3. 2. Empowerment is the key to getting people to want to participate in change. Only massive changes will suffice needed changes. He believes that:
.The additional sources of information about Empowerment: James Belasco gives numerous examples in which leaders reap extraordinary gains by empowering their employees.
Belasco uses a simple 4 step model to describe the empowerment process:
1) Preparation 2) Create tomorrow 3) Vision 4) Change Of these ´visionµ is the most important ingredients of empowerment.
Challenging the process
Search for opportunities Experiment & take risk
2. They are: 1.Kouzes and Posnor conducted few leadership seminars and asked participants to describe a ´personal bestµ leadership situation from their own experience. Analysis of these leadership stories led to identifying 5 leadership practices. Inspiring a shared vision
Envision the future Enlist others
3. Modeling the way
Set the example Plan small wins
5. Encouraging the heart
Recognize individual contributions Celebrate accomplishments
. Enabling others to act
Foster collaboration Strengthen others
000-person company. Peterson was the president CEO & chairman of Ford during the turnaround of that 370. & empowerment.
The net-effect was the significant change in the company·s culture from being a top-down.Donald Peterson describes the organizational redesign of Ford Motor Co. functionally oriented company to one that gave responsibility & power to cross functional teams at all levels of the organization. made big profits & created the Ford Taurus one of the best selling cars in American history. autocratic. They produced high quality products.
The primary vehicle for the turnaround was employee involvement. participation.
& leadership. Achieving flexibility by empowering people.
.Tom Peters is one of the strongest advocates on the American scene for participation and empowerment. innovative companies is ´productivity through peopleµ. people.
Creating total customer responsiveness. Learning to love change & Building organization system that support the first 4 themes..e. In his books he describes that one of the attributes for characterizing excellent. In another book by Tom Peters Thriving on Chaos the same themes appear i. innovation. He says: excellent companies pay attention to 4 things: customers. Pursuing fast-paced innovation.
Peters offers the following prescriptions for achieving flexibility by empowering people:
² ² ² ² ² ² ² ² ² ² Involve everyone in everything Use self-managing teams Listen/celebrate/recognize Spend time lavishly on recruiting Train & retrain Provide incentive pay for everyone Provide an employment guarantee Simplify reduce structure Reconceive the middle manager·s role & Eliminate bureaucratic rules & humiliating conditions.
he says. innovation & visionary leadership. But he introduces an important new insight: he takes aim at today·s organization structures. ² ´Today·s jobs are best accomplished through empowered people working in highly autonomous project teams. & organizations must be redesigned to allow that happen. customer satisfaction.µ
.Peters continued to advocate the importance of empowered people.
It contained the insights describing Stayer·s leadership journey from authoritarianism to abdication to letting his employees lead. The effect of involvement & empowerment is especially when empowered employees are formed into empowered teams.
.James Belasco teamed up with Ralph Stayer. former CEO of Johnsonville Foods. Johnsonville Foods became a classic example of how empowerment stimulates individual growth & organizational improvement.
Empowerment is an important ingredient in high-performance organizations. to explore empowerment in his book.
This concept pushes the idea of empowerment to the extreme. It allows every employee of a company to think like an owner of the business & start acting like one.The concept of ´open-book managementµ as a possible way to run business is receiving a great deal of attention in management circles today. sees & learns to understandthe company·s financials along with all the other numbers that are critical to tracking the business·s performance.
. Employees have a direct stake in the company·s success.
Open-book management rests on several simple principles:
1) Every employee in an open-book co. part of their job is to move those numbers in the right direction. usually with excellent financial results. Employees assume that whatever else they do.