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are words that substitute for

nouns.

Every pronoun must have a clear


antecedent (the word for which
the pronoun stands).
A. Personal Pronouns:

characteristics:

1. three persons (points of view)

1st person - the one(s)


speaking (I me my mine we us our
ours)
 2nd person - the one(s) spoken
to (you your yours)

 3rd person - the one(s) spoken


about (he him his she her
hers it its they their theirs)

feminine (she her hers)

masculine (he him his)

neuter (it its they them their


theirs)
singular
(I me my mine you your yours he
him his she her hers it its)
plural
(we us our ours you your
yours they them their theirs)
subjective (I you he she it we they)

possessive (my mine your yours his her


hers our ours their theirs)

objective (me you him her it us them)



1. A phrase or clause between the subject and
verb does not change the number of the
antecedent.
Example:
2. Indefinite pronouns as antecedents
Singular indefinite pronoun antecedents take
singular pronoun referents.
Example:
Plural indefinite pronoun antecedents
require plural referents.
PLURAL: several, few, both,
many
Some indefinite pronouns that are
modified by a prepositional
phrase may be either singular or
plural.

EITHER SINGULAR OR PLURAL:


some, any, none, all, most
Examples:
3. Compound subjects joined by and always
take a plural referent.

Example:
4. With compound subjects joined by or/nor,
the referent pronoun agrees with the
antecedent closer to the pronoun.

Example #1 (plural antecedent closer to


pronoun):
5. Collective Nouns (group, jury, crowd, team,
etc.) may be singular or plural, depending on
meaning.
6. Titles of single entities. (books,
organizations, countries, etc.) take a singular
referent.

EXAMPLES:
7. Plural form subjects with a singular
meaning take a singular referent. (news,
measles, mumps, physics, etc)

EXAMPLE:
8. Every or Many a before a noun or a
series of nouns requires a singular
referent.
EXAMPLES:
9. The number of vs A number of before a
subject:

The number of is singular.


A number of is plural.
 RULE: Use a subjective case pronoun
1) Personal pronoun subject
2) Personal pronoun subjective complement
("completes" the subject)
1) Personal pronoun direct object
2) Personal pronoun indirect object
3) Personal pronoun object of preposition
1. My grandmother really loved Juan. She left all
her money to Federico and _______ .
he
him

2. A student in that all-women's college should


have no fears about ________ future.
her
their
3. He was so worried about ________ he should
ask to the big dance, that he ended up not
asking anyone.
who
whom

4. Neither Tashonda nor _____ am responsible


for this mess.
I
me
 5. This is a matter for you and _______ to
decide.
I me

 6. Everybody in this class has completed


________ homework already.
his or her their

 7. No one on this bus seems to know


______ way around this part of New York
City.
Their his or her
1. Be sure that everyone brings ____________
own book.
HIS OR HER THEIR

2. If anyone calls, tell ____________ that I'll be


back in half an hour.
HIM OR HER THEM

3. Joe and ____________ have been close


friends for many years.
ME I
4. Did you see Derek and ____________ at the
game?
HER
SHE

5. Between you and ____________ , this politician


cannot be trusted.
ME
I

6. Each person in the room turned ____________


head to the front when the teacher entered.
THEIR
HIS
7. We know that we can count on James, Anne,
and ____________ .
HER
SHE

8. Rhonda explained that ____________ and her


sister had often eaten at that restaurant.
HER
SHE

9. Most of the workers were wearing


____________ hard hats.
HIS OR HER
THEIR
10. It's always best for a student to ask
questions when ____________ doesn't
understand a problem.
SHE
THEY

11. The children in that neighborhood often


ride ____________ bikes through the park.
HIS OR HER
THEIR

12. The local government plans to cut


____________ budget for recreation.
ITS
THEIR
13. When I meet new people, I'm usually
curious about ____________ occupations.
THEIR
HIS OR HER

14. Everyone who purchased one of the


paintings ____________ pleased.
WERE
WAS

15. Few of the suggestions ____________


reasonable to me.
SOUND
SOUNDS
16. Christopher and ____________ want to
travel to the Far East some day.
I
ME

17. The cost of the repairs shocked both my


brother and ____________ .
I
ME

18. Most of the congestion on the highway


____________ caused by an overturned truck.
WERE
WAS
19. To Maria and ____________ , the movie
seemed very silly.

HINT: Are you looking for a subject or the


object of a preposition here?
HER
SHE

20. Both of the bicycles in the garage


____________ broken.
IS
ARE