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Bridge Design

Beam bridge
Truss bridge
Arch bridge
Suspension bridge

Mr. Klokman
Computer / Technology
King Philip Middle School

used widely in urban and rural settings Cons: Limited span. design generally not considered very interesting or eye-catching . inexpensive relative to other bridge types. Pros: Easy to build. Beam bridge beam supported at each end by piers. This is why beam bridges rarely span more than 250 feet. does not allow large ships or heavy boat traffic to pass underneath.

Beam bridge Live Load Compression: the tendency to push or Dead Load squash a material Tension: the tendency for a material to be pulled apart Beam Bridge: Forces When something pushes down on the beam. the beam bends. Its top edge is pushed together. .000 pilings. and its bottom edge is pulled apart. and it’s a beam bridge! The Lake Pontchartrain Causeway in Louisiana is approximately 24 miles long. BRIDGE BRAG It’s the loooooooonnnnnnngest bridge in the world. and its twin spans are supported by over 9.

. Truss bridges are commonly made from a series of straight. Rigid arms extend from both sides of two piers. support a third. hold the arms in place. consists of an assembly of triangles. projecting from the top and bottom of each pier.. These "diving boards. steel bars." called cantilever arms. Truss bridge The truss bridge.. The arms that project toward the middle are only supported on one side. Diagonal steel tubes. central span. like really strong diving boards.

. a rigid support structure that is made up of interlocking triangles. but the first metal one was completed in 1841. generally not considered attractive Wooden truss bridges were used as early as the 1700s. A truss. high maintenance. holds up the roadbed and is set between two piers. difficult to widen if necessary. They are very strong and have been used for railroad bridges mainly because of the heavy loads they can support. frequently used as a draw bridge Cons: Difficult to construct. Pros: Very strong. Truss Bridge Tension: the Compression: the tendency for a tendency to push or material to be squash a material pulled apart Truss Bridge: Forces Every bar in this cantilever bridge experiences either a pushing or pulling force. This is why cantilever bridges can span farther than beam bridges. The triangle is used because it is the only shape that is inherently rigid. The bars rarely bend.

Romans built arches out of stone. Thousands of years ago. most arch bridges are made of steel or concrete... has great natural strength. Arch bridge Live Load: would be the water Dead Load: would be the stone The arch bridge. . Today. and they can span up to 800 feet.

typically designs are limited to certain sites (for example. or where an arch is visually appropriate) . where the ground can support the large forces at the base of the arch. Arch bridge Arch Bridge: Forces The arch is squeezed together. very strong Cons: Relatively expensive. considered attractive. and this squeezing force is carried outward along the curve to the supports at each end. push back on the arch and prevent the ends of the arch from spreading apart. called abutments. where the span-to-depth ratio of the arch is proportional. Pros: Wide range of materials can be used. The supports.

How are arch bridges built? Building an arch bridge isn't easy. This is how the New River Gorge Bridge in West Virginia was built. For years. since the structure is completely unstable until the two spans meet in the middle. . A newer method supports the spans using cables anchored to the ground on either side of the bridge. in which a wooden form supported both spans until they locked together at the top. engineers used a technique called centering.

.000 feet -.way farther than any other type of bridge! Most suspension bridges have a truss system beneath the roadway to resist bending and twisting.000 to 7.. . can span 2. Suspension bridge The suspension bridge.

the roadway hangs from massive steel cables. which are draped over two towers and secured into solid concrete blocks. called anchorages. Suspension Bridge Torsion: Tension: the twisting tendency for a material material to be pulled apart Suspension Bridge: Forces In all suspension bridges. the cables transferthe load into compression in the two towers. The two towers support most of the bridge's weight. The cars push down on the roadway. but because the roadway is suspended. on both ends of the bridge. .

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000 to 7.000 feet .Beam bridge Truss bridge 250 feet Longest Single Span: 350 feet (center span) Arch Bridge Suspension Bridge 800 feet 2.

Structures Girders Braces Columns Beams .