Fossilization

Nidia Delgado

thus stopping the interlanguage from developing. 1996) . in a permanent way «. (Selinker. it is hypothesized.Definition  F]ossilization is the process whereby the learner creates a cessation of interlanguage learning.

 Too many new words being learned by translation rather than by use. .  Too many grammar exercises being attempted too soon. Why do youn think fossilization is unique to second language learners?  Insufficient motivation  Too many grammar topics being taught too much too soon.

 Do you have any idea about how a teacher might help second language learners overcome fossilization and move forward again in the language development process?  Motivation  Contextualization  Vocabulary .

Graham. . It is suggested that helping students overcome fossilized items requires positive affective feedback. Janet G.

Janet G. A problem for educators is to convince the students that they need remedial assistance without intimidating or antagonizing them. .  Graham.

 Placement essays and grammar tests can be used to determine whether students need a remedial course or can proceed to an English as a second language composition course. Janet G. the span in levels of proficiency causes problems.  Graham. . In the remedial class.

Janet G. Tutorial help for less proficient students and extra language lab work. are possible solutions. .  Graham. as well as individualized instruction.

 Graham. written drills. sentence manipulation drills. substitution and feedback. exercises. corrective feedback. . The remedial class includes formal grammar instruction. oral exercises with instruction. and dictations in class. short composition assignments. Janet G.

htm .nclrc. http://www.org/essentials/motivating /acquisition.

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