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# Digital Logic Design

Combinational Circuits

Objectives
• Introduction
• Analysis arrangement
• Half Subtractor/Full Subtractor
• BCD to Excess-3 Converter

Ahmad Almulhem, KFUPM 2009

Combinational Gates

MSI Circuit (MSI Component)
• Decoder
• Encoder
• Demultiplexer
• Multiplexer
Programmable Logic Device
• Programmable ROM (PROM)

Combinational Gates - Introduction
There are two categories of logic gates
Combinational
Sequential
Combinational logic
Each output depends solely on the current input

Combinational Gates - Introduction
Sequential Logic
Each output depends on both current and the
previous input. Memory (from feed back loop)
contains previous information

can you analyze it’s function? Step 2 • Mark it’s input and output • Get the function on each starting gate with the nearest gate to the input follows to the output • Draw TT • Get the function of the circuit – Half Adder .Combinational Gates – Analysis Arrangement Given combinational logic.

Combinational Gates – Design Arrangement Design arrangement 1. 2. What is the problem Example: Build a full adder which can add two bit. Determine and mark input and output for the circuit Example: Two input and two output is mark as below: 3. Draw TT .

Get simplest Boolean function. Combinational Gates – Half Adder Design arrangement 4. Draw logic diagram . Use K-Map 5.

we need to add three bits (including carry) •Example: •Full Adder can be produced from half adder . Combinational Gates – Full Adder •Half adder only adds two bits •To add two binary number.

Combinational Gates – Full Adder Truth table Use K-map to get SOP form .

Combinational Gates – Full Adder •Other method. use algebra manipulation .

Combinational Gates – Full Adder From the formula. Full Adder is constructed from two Half Adder and OR gate .

Full Adder = 2 Half Adders Manipulating the Equations: S=(XY)Z C = XY + XZ + YZ = XY + Z(X  Y ) Think of Z as a carry in Src: Mano’s Book .

can also be represented by two’s complement .Combinational Gates – Half Subtractor • Half subtractor takes two input bit. let say X. Y to get two-bit answer which represent X-Y • Truth Table Answer either positive or negative Negative answer is represented by borrow (B) from the next MSB bit Output B and D.

Combinational Gates – Half Subtractor • From TT • Circuit .

Combinational Gates – Full Subtractor • Subtraction of two binary numbers need three input Full subtractor • Contains borrow input from previous LSB • Example .

Combinational Gates – Full Subtractor • TT • K-map .

Combinational Gates – Full Subtractor • Other method. use algebra manipulation .

Combinational Gates – Full Subtractor With that formula. we get Full subtractor is constructed from two half subtractor and OR and NOT gate .

Combinational Gates – Code Converter Code converter – take input code and translate it to similar code Example: BCD converter to Excess-3 Input: BCD digit Output: Excess-3 digit .

Combinational Gates – Code Converter BCD to Excess-3 Truth table K-Map .

Combinational Gates – Code Converter BCD to Excess-3 .

BCD-to-Seven-Segment Decoder .Specification .

BCD-to-Seven-Segment Decoder .Specification .

Specification a= A’C + A’BD + B’C’D’ + AB’C’ b= A’B’ + A’C’D’ + A’CD + AB’C’ c= A’B + A’D + B’C’D’ + AB’C’ d= A’C^D’ + A’B’C + B’C’D’ + AB’C’ + A’BC’D e= A’CD’ + B’C’D’ f= A’BC’ + A’C’D’ + A’BD’ + AB’C’ g= A’CD’ + A’B’C + A’BC’ + AB’C’ .BCD-to-Seven-Segment Decoder .

determine its circuit Function may be expressed as: ? Boolean function Truth table . find out its function B C A B A C F2 ? Function may be expressed as: B C Boolean function Truth table Design Given a desired function. Combinational Circuits Analysis A B C A F1 ? Given a circuit.

Analysis Procedure Boolean Expression Approach A B F1 C ABC A A+B+C B AB'C'+A'BC'+A'B'C C A B (A’+B’)(A’+C’)(B’+C’) A F2 C F1=AB'C'+A'BC'+A'B'C+ABC B F2=AB+AC+BC AB+AC+BC C .

Analysis Procedure Truth Table Approach A =0 0 0 B =0 F1 A B C F1 F2 C =0 0 0 0 0 0 A =0 0 B =0 0 C =0 1 A =0 0 B =0 A =0 0 0 F2 C =0 B =0 0 C =0 .

Analysis Procedure Truth Table Approach A =0 0 B =0 1 A B C F1 F2 F1 C =1 0 0 0 0 0 A =0 1 B =0 1 0 0 1 1 0 C =1 1 A =0 0 B =0 A =0 0 0 F2 C =1 B =0 0 C =1 .

Analysis Procedure Truth Table Approach A =0 0 B =1 1 A B C F1 F2 F1 C =0 0 0 0 0 0 A =0 1 B =1 1 0 0 1 1 0 C =0 1 0 1 0 1 0 A =0 0 B =1 A =0 0 0 F2 C =0 B =1 0 C =0 .

Analysis Procedure Truth Table Approach A =0 0 B =1 0 A B C F1 F2 F1 C =1 0 0 0 0 0 A =0 1 B =1 0 0 0 1 1 0 C =1 0 0 1 0 1 0 A =0 0 0 1 1 0 1 B =1 A =0 0 1 F2 C =1 B =1 1 C =1 .

Analysis Procedure Truth Table Approach A =1 0 B =0 1 A B C F1 F2 F1 C =0 0 0 0 0 0 A =1 1 B =0 1 0 0 1 1 0 C =0 1 0 1 0 1 0 A =1 0 0 1 1 0 1 B =0 1 0 0 1 0 A =1 0 0 F2 C =0 B =0 0 C =0 .

Analysis Procedure Truth Table Approach A =1 0 B =0 0 A B C F1 F2 F1 C =1 0 0 0 0 0 A =1 1 B =0 0 0 0 1 1 0 C =1 0 0 1 0 1 0 A =1 0 0 1 1 0 1 B =0 1 0 0 1 0 A =1 1 1 C =1 F2 1 0 1 0 1 B =0 0 C =1 .

Analysis Procedure Truth Table Approach A =1 0 B =1 0 A B C F1 F2 F1 C =0 0 0 0 0 0 A =1 1 B =1 0 0 0 1 1 0 C =0 0 0 1 0 1 0 A =1 1 0 1 1 0 1 B =1 1 0 0 1 0 A =1 0 1 C =0 F2 1 0 1 0 1 1 1 0 0 1 B =1 0 C =0 .

Analysis Procedure Truth Table Approach A =1 1 B =1 1 A B C F1 F2 F1 C =1 0 0 0 0 0 A =1 1 B =1 0 0 0 1 1 0 C =1 0 0 1 0 1 0 A =1 1 0 1 1 0 1 B =1 1 0 0 1 0 A =1 1 1 C =1 F2 1 0 1 0 1 1 1 0 0 1 B =1 1 C =1 1 1 1 1 1 F1=AB'C'+A'BC'+A'B'C+ABC B B 0 1 0 1 0 0 1 0 A 1 0 1 0 A 0 1 1 1 C C F =AB+AC+BC .

Digital Logic Design Combinational Circuits with MSI .

Objectives • Binary Parallel Adder • BCD Adder • Magnitude Comparator • Design of 4-bit magnitude comparator .

Bigger Adders • How to build an adder for n-bit numbers? • Example: 4-Bit Adder • Inputs ? • Outputs ? • What is the size of the truth table? • How many functions to optimize? .

Bigger Adders • How to build an adder for n-bit numbers? • Example: 4-Bit Adder • Inputs ? 9 inputs • Outputs ? 5 outputs • What is the size of the truth table? 512 rows! • How many functions to optimize? 5 functions .

Binary Parallel Adder To add n-bit numbers: • Use n Full-Adders in parallel • The carries propagates as in addition by hand • Use Z in the circuit as a Cin 1 0 0 0 0101 0110 1011 .

Binary Parallel Adder To add n-bit numbers: • Use n Full-Adders in parallel • The carries propagates as in addition by hand Src: Mano’s Book This adder is called ripple carry adder .

Subtraction (2’s Complement) How to build a subtractor using 2’s complement? .

Subtraction (2’s Complement) How to build a subtractor using 2’s complement? 1 Src: Mano’s Book S = A + ( -B) .

Adder/Subtractor How to build a circuit that performs both addition and subtraction? .

Adder/Subtractor 0 : Add 1: subtract Src: Mano’s Book Using full adders and XOR we can build an Adder/Subtractor! .

Binary Parallel Adder (Again) To add n-bit numbers: • Use n Full-Adders in parallel • The carries propagates as in addition by hand Src: Mano’s Book This adder is called ripple carry adder .

the BCD number 0110 is added to the result as a correction step When adding two BCD numbers.BCD Adder BCD digits are valid for decimal numbers 0-9 Addition of two BCD numbers will generate an output. that may be greater than 1001 (9). a 6 needs to be added to bring them to correct BCD format. the maximum result that can be obtained is: 9 + 9 = 18 If we include a carry in bit. then the maximum result that can be obtained is: 19 (10011) Both numbers 18 and 19 are invalid BCD digits. . In such cases. Therefore.

Adding two BCD numbers – Truth Table The truth table defines the outputs when two BCD numbers are added The function F is 1 for all invalid BCD digits. and -The result is ORed with CO. a 5 variable can be used. and therefore acts as a BCD verifier To minimize the expression. since the function is always 1 whenever CO is 1 * From course CD . or: -A 4 variable k map can be used to minimize the function F.

Adding two BCD numbers – Minimization F Z1Z0 Z3Z2 00 01 11 10 00 0 0 0 0 01 0 0 0 0 11 1 1 1 1 10 0 0 1 1 F = Z3Z2 + Z3Z1 + CO .

Adding two BCD numbers – Circuit B3 B2B1B0 A3A2A1A0 Cout 4-bit Binary Carry In Adder Z3 Z2 Z1 Z0 0 Correction Step 4-bit Binary Adder S3 S2 S1 S0 .

the correction step executes by adding 0000 to Z3Z2Z1Z0. the BCD adder can be cascaded. the correction step adds 0110 to Z3Z2Z1Z0 to generate the corrected output The output carry is the same as Cout If additional decimal digits need to be added. and the output remains the same When Cout =1. with the output carry of one phase connected to the input of the other .Adding two BCD numbers - Steps The two 4-bit BCD inputs are added by the 4-bit binary adder to produce the sum Z3Z2Z1Z0 and a Carry Out (Cout) When Cout =0.

Binary Multiplication Similar to decimal multiplication Multiplying 2 bits will generate a 1 if both bits are equal to 1. requires an A1B1 A1B0 + ADDER ---------------------------------- C3 C2 C1 C0 . Resembles an AND operation Multiplying two 2-bit numbers is done as follows: B1 B0 x A1 A0 ---------------- This operation is an A0B1 A0B0 addition. and will be 0 otherwise.

AND gates and ADDERS will be sufficient Half Adders . for multiplying two 2-bit numbers.Binary Multiplication Therefore.

LT). EQ. or A<B n-bit input n-bit magnitude GT A comparator Inputs First n-bit number A EQ Second n-bit number B n-bit input Outputs B LE 3 output signals (GT. or A = B. while the other 2 outputs are 0`s .Magnitude Comparator Definition: A magnitude comparator is a combinational circuit that compares two numbers A & B to determine whether: A > B. where: GT = 1 IFF A > B EQ = 1 IFF A = B LT = 1 IFF A < B Note: Exactly One of these 3 outputs equals 1.

or EQ 4-bit input A<B B LE .Example 1: Magnitude Comparator (4-bit) Problem: Design a magnitude comparator that compares 2 4-bit numbers A and B and determines whether: 4-bit input 4-bit magnitude GT comparator A > B. or A A = B.

B = 4-bits) A and B are two 4-bit numbers 4-bit input 4-bit magnitude GT Let A = A3A2A1A0 . .Example 1: Magnitude Comparator (4-bit) Solution: Inputs: 8-bits (A = 4-bits . and A comparator Let B = B3B2B1B0 EQ 4-bit input Inputs have 28 (256) possible B combinations (size of truth table LE and K-map?) Not easy to design using conventional techniques The circuit possesses certain amount of regularity ⇒ can be designed algorithmically.

Thus. 2 and 3  Xi = 0 IFF Ai ≠ Bi Therefore the condition for A = B or EQ=1 IFF A3= B3 → (X3 = 1). EQ=1 IFF X3 X2 X1 X0 = 1. and A1= B1 → (X1 = 1). and A0= B0 → (X0 = 1). In other words. 1. and A2= B2 → (X2 = 1). EQ = X3 X2 X1 X0 .Example 1: Magnitude Comparator (4-bit) Designing EQ: Define Xi = Ai xnor Bi = Ai Bi + Ai’ Bi’  Xi = 1 IFF Ai = Bi for i =0.

LT = A3’B3 + X3 A2‘B2 + X3 X2 A1’B1 + X3 X2 X1A0’ B0 .Example 1: Magnitude Comparator (4-bit) Designing GT and LT: GT = 1 if A > B: • If A3 > B3  A3 = 1 and B3 = 0 • If A3 = B3 and A2 > B2 • If A3 = B3 and A2 = B2 and A1 > A1 • If A3 = B3 and A2 = B2 and A1 = B1 and A0 > B0 Therefore. GT = A3B3‘ + X3 A2 B2‘ + X3 X2 A1 B1‘ + X3 X2 X1A0 B0‘ Similarly.

Example 1: Magnitude Comparator (4-bit) EQ = X3 X2 X1 X0 GT = A3B3’ + X3A2B2’ + X3X2A1B1’ + X3X2X1A0B0’ LT = B3A3’ + X3B2A2’ + X3X2B1A1’ + X3X2X1B0A0’ 4-bit magnitude comparator .