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Introduction to

Instrumentation and instrument

What is instrumentation?

 In general definition this can be defined

as the art and science of measurement
and/or control.

Is achieved by using an “instrument”

Instrumentation based on
industrial application:

“It is a collection of instruments, devices,

hardware or functions or their application for
the purpose of measuring, monitoring or
controlling an industrial process or machine,
or any combination of these.
What is an instrument?

“ It is device used for direct or indirect

measurement, monitoring, and/or control of a
variable including indicators, controllers, and
other devices such as annunciators, switches
and pushbuttons.”
Instrument application categories and
functional divisions.
Factory automation instruments
Plant safety or safeguarding instruments
Product Quality monitoring/control
Environmental condition monitoring /control
Process variable measurement and control
Instrumentation System
“It is an arrangement of two or more
instruments connected together to perform a
unified task.”

 Each instrument operates independently

according to its specific task. Failure from one
member of instrument, means failure of the
entire instrument system.
“Calibration is an insurance policy that verifies
the accuracy of test instruments.”

Calibration is the act of checking and verifying the

accuracy of a measurement instrument by
comparison with a reference standard. Properly
calibrated instruments perform to manufacturers’
published specifications.
Why Calibrate?
While most instruments that are evaluated and
calibrated normally pass the test, instrument performance
can change over time. There are several factors that can
contribute to this change including drift, normal wear and
tear, lack of proper maintenance, user error, and improper
use and abuse of equipment. Regular calibration ensures
that test and measurement instruments are operating at a
known performance level.
Why is Calibration
By doing proper calibration procedure and
through proper interpretation of the calibration
results, instrument error/s can be identified and
be corrected.
Calibration is required by law.
Instrument Calibration Cycles

Calibration is not a one-time occurrence. Instruments must

be calibrated periodically to ensure specified performance.
Each instrument requires a specific interval between
calibrations. This interval is determined by the instrument’s
owner and is often based on the manufacturer’s
How often instrument is calibrated?
Critical: An instrument which, if not conforming to
specification, could potentially compromise product or
process quality and safety.
Non-critical: An instrument whose function is not
critical to product or process quality, but whose function is
more of an operational significance.
Reference Only: An instrument whose function is not
critical to product quality, not significant to equipment
operation, and not used for making quality decisions.
(When required)
Types of Calibration
Workshop, Laboratory or Bench Calibration

A Bench Calibration is performed in the shop on the bench

with power supplied from an external source. It may be
performed upon receipts of new instruments prior to installation.
This provides an assurance that the instrument received is
undamaged. This also allows configuration and calibration in a
favorable environment.

Advantages Disadvantages
1. Instrument is removed, cleaned and 1. Problem may encounter during pull-
inspected. out and installation.

2. Calibration done in an ideal conditions. 2. Zero adjustment usually required after

installation to compensate for field
3. Fixed calibration set-up and utilities. ambient operating conditions.
Typical Bench Calibration Set-up

Standards or Calibrators
Field Calibration
Field Calibrations are performed “in-situ” or in-place, as
installed. The instrument being calibrated is not removed from the
installed location. Field calibration may be performed after
installation to ensure proper connections and configuration.
Periodic calibrations are more likely to be performed in the field.

Advantages Disadvantages
1. May save calibration time. 1. Loop elements
performance/condition may not be
2. May identify and allow troubleshooting
individually checked.
of installation problems.
3. Done in actual field ambient operating
Field Calibration