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You are on page 1of 22

CHAPTER MECHANICS OF

MATERIALS

5 Ferdinand P. Beer

E. Russell Johnston, Jr.

John T. DeWolf Analysis and Design

David F. Mazurek

of Beams for Bending

Lecture Notes:

Brock E. Barry

U.S. Military Academy

Edition

Seventh

MECHANICS OF MATERIALS Beer • Johnston • DeWolf • Mazurek

Contents

Introduction

Shear and Bending Moment Diagrams

Sample Problem 5.1

Sample Problem 5.2

Relations Among Load, Shear, and Bending Moment

Sample Problem 5.3

Sample Problem 5.5

Design of Prismatic Beams for Bending

Sample Problem 5.8

Copyright © 2015 McGraw-Hill Education. Permission required for reproduction or display. 5-2

Edition

Seventh

MECHANICS OF MATERIALS Beer • Johnston • DeWolf • Mazurek

Introduction

• Goal - Analysis and design of beams

various points along the member

concentrated loads or distributed loads

of a shear force (from the shear stress

distribution) and a bending couple (from the

normal stress distribution)

My Mc M

x m

I I S

Requires determination of the location and

Fig. 5.4 Analysis of a

simply supported beam.

magnitude of maximum bending moment

Copyright © 2015 McGraw-Hill Education. Permission required for reproduction or display. 5-3

Edition

Seventh

MECHANICS OF MATERIALS Beer • Johnston • DeWolf • Mazurek

Introduction

support configurations.

Copyright © 2015 McGraw-Hill Education. Permission required for reproduction or display. 5-4

Edition

Seventh

MECHANICS OF MATERIALS Beer • Johnston • DeWolf • Mazurek

• Determination of maximum normal and

shearing stresses requires identification

of maximum internal shear force and

bending couple.

are determined by passing a section

through the beam and applying an

equilibrium analysis on the beam portions

on either side of the section.

and bending moment, M, at a given section.

(a) Loaded beam with section indicated at

arbitrary positions S. (b) Free-body

diagrams of left and right sections at C.

bending moment.

Copyright © 2015 McGraw-Hill Education. Permission required for reproduction or display. 5-5

Edition

Seventh

MECHANICS OF MATERIALS Beer • Johnston • DeWolf • Mazurek

SOLUTION:

• Treating the entire beam as a rigid

body, determine the reaction forces

supports and load application points.

Apply equilibrium analyses on

resulting free-bodies to determine

For the timber beam and loading internal shear forces and bending

shown, draw the shear and bend- couples

moment diagrams and determine the

maximum normal stress due to • Identify the maximum shear and

bending. bending-moment from plots of their

distributions.

determine the corresponding

maximum normal stress.

Copyright © 2015 McGraw-Hill Education. Permission required for reproduction or display. 5-6

Edition

Seventh

MECHANICS OF MATERIALS Beer • Johnston • DeWolf • Mazurek

SOLUTION:

• Treating the entire beam as a rigid body, determine

the reaction forces

F y 0 M B : RB 46 kN RD 14 kN

• Section the beam and apply equilibrium analyses

on resulting free-bodies

Fy 0 20 kN V1 0 V1 20 kN

M1 0 20 kN0 m M1 0 M1 0

Fy 0 20 kN V2 0 V2 20 kN

M2 0 20 kN2.5 m M 2 0 M 2 50 kN m

V3 26 kN M 3 50 kN m

V4 26 kN M 4 28 kN m

V5 14 kN M 5 28 kN m

Fig. 1 Six sections identified for analysis, and the V6 14 kN M 6 0

free body diagram for each section.

Copyright © 2015 McGraw-Hill Education. Permission required for reproduction or display. 5-7

Edition

Seventh

MECHANICS OF MATERIALS Beer • Johnston • DeWolf • Mazurek

• Identify the maximum shear and bending-

moment from plots of their distributions.

Vm 26 kN M m M B 50 kN m

determine the corresponding

maximum normal stress.

S 16 b h 2 16 0.080 m 0.250 m 2

833.33 10 6 m3

MB 50 103 N m

m

S 833.33 10 6 m3

m 60.0 106 Pa

result from the analysis of each section.

Copyright © 2015 McGraw-Hill Education. Permission required for reproduction or display. 5-8

Edition

Seventh

MECHANICS OF MATERIALS Beer • Johnston • DeWolf • Mazurek

SOLUTION:

• Replace the 10 kip load with an

equivalent force-couple system at D.

Find the reactions at B by considering

the beam as a rigid body.

support and load application points.

The structure shown is constructed of a Apply equilibrium analyses on

W10x112 rolled-steel beam. (a) Draw resulting free-bodies to determine

the shear and bending-moment internal shear forces and bending

diagrams for the beam and the given couples.

loading. (b) determine maximum

normal stress in sections just to the • Apply the elastic flexure formulas to

right and left of point D. determine the maximum normal

stress to the left and right of point D.

Copyright © 2015 McGraw-Hill Education. Permission required for reproduction or display. 5-9

Edition

Seventh

MECHANICS OF MATERIALS Beer • Johnston • DeWolf • Mazurek

SOLUTION:

• Replace the 10 kip load with equivalent force-

couple system at D. Find reactions at B.

• Section the beam and apply equilibrium

analyses on resulting free-bodies.

From A to C :

Fy 0 3x V 0 V 3x kips

M1 0 3x 12 x M 0 M 1.5 x 2 kip ft

From C to D :

Fy 0 24 V 0 V 24 kips

M 2 0 24 x 4 M 0 M 96 24 x kip ft

From D to B :

V 34 kips M 226 34 x kip ft

the free-body diagram for each section.

Edition

Seventh

MECHANICS OF MATERIALS Beer • Johnston • DeWolf • Mazurek

• Apply the elastic flexure formulas to

determine the maximum normal stress to

the left and right of point D.

From Appendix C for a W10x112 rolled

steel shape, S = 126 in3 about the X-X axis.

To the left of D :

M 2016 kip in

m m 16.0 ksi

S 126 in 3

To the right of D :

M 1776 kip in m 14.1 ksi

m

S 126 in 3

result from the analysis of each section

Edition

Seventh

MECHANICS OF MATERIALS Beer • Johnston • DeWolf • Mazurek

• Relationship between load and shear:

Fy 0 : V V V w x 0

V w x

dV

w

dx

xD

VD VC w dx

xC

• Relationship between shear and bending

moment:

M C 0 : M M M V x wx x 0

2

M V x 12 w x 2

dM

V

dx

xD

Fig. 5.9 (a) Simply supported beam subjected to a

distributed load, with a small element between C

M D MC V dx

xC

and C’, (b) Free-body diagram of the element.

area under shear curve between C and D

Edition

Seventh

MECHANICS OF MATERIALS Beer • Johnston • DeWolf • Mazurek

SOLUTION:

• Taking the entire beam as a free body,

determine the reactions at A and D.

load to develop the shear diagram.

Draw the shear and bending • Apply the relationship between bending

moment diagrams for the beam moment and shear to develop the bending

and loading shown. moment diagram.

Edition

Seventh

MECHANICS OF MATERIALS Beer • Johnston • DeWolf • Mazurek

SOLUTION:

• Taking the entire beam as a free body, determine the

reactions at A and D.

M A 0

0 D24 ft 20 kips 6 ft 12 kips 14 ft 12 kips 28 ft

D 26 kips

F y 0

0 Ay 20 kips 12 kips 26 kips 12 kips

Ay 18 kips

• Apply the relationship between shear and load to

develop the shear diagram.

dV

w dV w dx

dx

- zero slope between concentrated loads

Fig. 1 Free-body diagrams for finding

the reactions as well as the shear - linear variation over uniform load segment

diagram.

Edition

Seventh

MECHANICS OF MATERIALS Beer • Johnston • DeWolf • Mazurek

• Apply the relationship between bending

moment and shear to develop the bending

moment diagram.

dM

V dM V dx

dx

- bending moment at A and E is zero

- bending moment variation between A, B,

C and D is linear

- bending moment variation between D

and E is quadratic

- net change in bending moment is equal to

areas under shear distribution segments

- total of all bending moment changes across

the beam should be zero

Fig. 1 Free-body diagram for finding the

reactions as well as the shear and bending-

moment diagrams.

Copyright © 2015 McGraw-Hill Education. Permission required for reproduction or display. 5 - 15

Edition

Seventh

MECHANICS OF MATERIALS Beer • Johnston • DeWolf • Mazurek

SOLUTION:

• Taking the entire beam as a free body,

determine the reactions at C.

and load to develop the shear diagram.

Draw the shear and bending moment • Apply the relationship between

diagrams for the beam and loading bending moment and shear to develop

shown. the bending moment diagram.

Edition

Seventh

MECHANICS OF MATERIALS Beer • Johnston • DeWolf • Mazurek

SOLUTION:

• Taking the entire beam as a free body,

determine the reactions at C.

Fy 0 12 w0 a RC RC 12 w0 a

a a

M C 0 12 w0 a L M C M C 12 w0 a L

3 3

Results from integration of the load and shear

distributions should be equivalent.

• Apply the relationship between shear and load

to develop the shear diagram.

a

a

x x 2

VB V A w0 1 dx w0 x

2a

0 a 0

Fig. 1 Cantilevered beam having

distributed loading and the resulting VB 12 w0 a area under load curve

the shear diagram.

- No change in shear between B and C.

- Compatible with free body analysis

Copyright © 2015 McGraw-Hill Education. Permission required for reproduction or display. 5 - 17

Edition

Seventh

MECHANICS OF MATERIALS Beer • Johnston • DeWolf • Mazurek

• Apply the relationship between bending moment

and shear to develop the bending moment

diagram.

a

a x 2 x 2 x3

M B M A w0 x dx w0

2a 2 6a

0 0

M B 13 w0 a 2

L

M B M C 12 w0 a dx 12 w0 aL a

a

a w0 a

M C 16 w0 a3L a L

2 3

analysis

distributed loading and the resulting the

shear and bending-moment diagrams.

Copyright © 2015 McGraw-Hill Education. Permission required for reproduction or display. 5 - 18

Edition

Seventh

MECHANICS OF MATERIALS Beer • Johnston • DeWolf • Mazurek

• The largest normal stress is found at the surface where the

maximum bending moment occurs.

M max c M max

m

I S

less than the allowable stress for the material used. This

criteria leads to the determination of the minimum

acceptable section modulus.

m all

M max

S min

all

section modulus, the one with the smallest weight per unit

length or cross sectional area will be the least expensive

and the best choice.

Copyright © 2015 McGraw-Hill Education. Permission required for reproduction or display. 5 - 19

Edition

Seventh

MECHANICS OF MATERIALS Beer • Johnston • DeWolf • Mazurek

SOLUTION:

• Considering the entire beam as a free-

body, determine the reactions at A and

D.

A 5-m-long simply supported steel beam and load distribution. From the

beam AD is to carry the distributed diagram, determine the maximum

and concentrated loads shown. bending moment.

Knowing that the allowable normal

stress for the grade of steel to be used • Determine the minimum acceptable

is 160 MPa, select the wide-flange beam section modulus. Choose the

shape that should be used. best standard section which meets this

criteria.

Edition

Seventh

MECHANICS OF MATERIALS Beer • Johnston • DeWolf • Mazurek

• Considering the entire beam as a free-body,

determine the reactions at A and D.

M A 0 D5 m 60 kN 1.5 m 50 kN 4 m

D 58.0 kN

F y 0 Ay 58.0 kN 60 kN 50 kN

Ay 52.0 kN

maximum bending moment.

VA Ay 52.0 kN

VB VA area under load curve 60 kN

VB 8 kN

V = 0 or x = 2.6 m.

M max area under shear curve, A to E

Fig. 1 A beam free-body diagram and

associated shear diagram. 67.6 kN

Edition

Seventh

MECHANICS OF MATERIALS Beer • Johnston • DeWolf • Mazurek

• Determine the minimum acceptable beam

section modulus.

M max 67.6 kN m

Smin

all 160 MPa

422.5 10 6 m3 422.5 103 mm3

Shape S 103 mm 3

this criteria.

W410 38.8 637

W360 32.9 474 W 360 32.9

W310 38.7 549

W250 44.8 535

W200 46.1 448

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