You are on page 1of 19

p p  

 


   
  p 

p p 
  p
p 

 p
p    p 
p pp
What is mathematics as on going cultural
activity?
ã V   

ã     

ã V 
 !
ã p" #
ã p\$
    




p 

& %





V &%
ã %  

ã    '(\$

  

ã V & %') 

\$  \$ 
  %*\$ 
* \$ +

ã    

& &
ã  £  )%)\$
  * ( ) 
ã \$ ( ')
   '
ã
\$(  \$   
     \$
)"
& &
ã a constant and finite width
ã is infinitely long in the perpendicular direction
and periodic (unchanged distance)
ã invariant under various geometric
transformations
ã display the same respective symmetries
á 
PATT 
V  

¢    

    
¢  ¢  

       ¢       ¢¢  
   ¢  

p   

      
  
V 
 

¢      ¢ 

   ¢¢    ¢ 

!" 

V   

¢   # ¢  ¢ 

    
\$  %&'" 

V  

   
   

   
V 
  

¢     ()* +

   ¢¢  
 , ¢  %--%-.

  





 
V   

¢      ¢   ()* +

   
 ¢/  %--%-. %&'" 



 
  
   
V   

¢       ¢ 

   
 
0 1  

  
p 
  
    

¢ 

  (    2# ¢  ¢ 

 + ¢¢   3 
 %--%-.1  

  

    p  
 
  
  
ã )   & 
ã    )  
,(-.  )  
'   
+  ./0 0 .1
 

ã '  ) 

 2

)
)
//1

'   

+  ./0 0 .1
 
ã p     ' )
 \$\$ 
ã ) \$  
\$ 
  
ã  \$  )\$
\$' =   \$, =   -\$
   
(

&(
   3 
p )
%   

ã p \$
)3///   \$
) )
V \$ '
 ) '
ã 
p 
ã a pattern that can be repeated to fill the plane
ã is periodic along two linearly independent directions
ã studied in terms of the symmetry operations that leave
them unchanged
ã due to their importance in the physics and chemistry of
crystals, they are referred to as the ¢  
¢   